# 1.3: Scientific Thinking & Process

```1.3: Scientific
Thinking & Process
Welcome to the Scientific
Method!!!!!!
1.3: Scientific Thinking &
Process
One of my favorite things to do when I have lots of
spare time is bake cookies and cakes. I’ve been
having a problem lately- nothing seems to turn out
right. What should be my first step in solving this
problem?
A.
Try baking cookies more often, and bring them to
class.
B.
Figure out if something is wrong with the oven or
kitchen timer
C. Nothing. You aren’t a pastry chef, Miss Walsh.
1.3: Scientific Thinking &
Process
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The fact of the matter is, we all use some or
parts of the scientific method in our daily lives
to solve problems. The only difference
between scientists and us is scientists are
researching problems, and we’re trying to
figure out what’s wrong with our ovens!!!
Remember that no matter what branch of
science (physics, biology, chemistry),
scientists are going to use the same method
to solve problems and conduct research.
1.3: Scientific Thinking &
Process
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Biology is a process of inquiry that uses
critical and logical thinking to find answers to
questions.
Scientific inquiry also requires evidence- just
like in a court of law.
1.3: Scientific Thinking &
Process
The following are the steps to the scientific
method:
I.
Observations, data, and hypotheses
1.
a.
b.
c.
Scientific inquiry starts with observations; this
includes actually observing the subject, or
examining data from past experiments.
Observations can also be recorded as data . There
are 2 kinds of data: qualitative (sight, sound, smell)
or quantitative (how much, temperature, etc.)
Hypothesis: a proposed answer for scientific
questions. It must be specific and testable.
1.3: Scientific Thinking &
Process
Testing hypotheses
2.
a.
b.
Scientists test the hypothesis several timesbiological data can be highly variable. By repeating
tests, scientists can be certain their results are
“chance happenings.”
After testing the hypothesis several times, scientists
analyze the data. They use statistics, and there are
two outcomes from statistical analysis:
i. Nonsignificant: the effect was so small it could
have happened by chance
ii. Statistically significant: the data show an effect
that is not likely due to chance.
1.3: Scientific Thinking &
Process
Conducting Experiments
II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
In experiments, scientists study factors called
independent variables and dependent variables
to find cause and effect relationships
The independent variable is the one
manipulated in the experiment
The dependent variable is the one that is
affected by the independent variable;
dependent variables are measured during an
experiment to determine the impact of the
independent variable
Ideally, only one variable should change at a
time- all else should remain constant.
1.3: Scientific Thinking &
Process
What is a theory?
III.
Remember this: a hypothesis is a proposed
A THEORY is a proposed explanation for a
wide range of observations and experimental
results supported by a wide range of evidence.
Theories are not easily accepted in scienceand as a rule, they are never proven. They are
always subject to change or may be disproven.
1.
2.
3.
a.
Examples: theory of evolution, theory of disease
1.3: Scientific Thinking &
Process
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On a new sheet of paper, please write your
name, date and period.
Please label the assignment: 1.3 questions,
page 17, #1, 2, 5.
Write in complete sentences, you do not have
to write the questions
1.3: Scientific Thinking &
Process
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Arab people

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