對、錯 本土化、非本土化 陰、陽 真、偽
正、反 勝、負 Computer Architecture Outline-2
) “gate” as the switch
Outline-3 Computer Architecture
Transistors consist of three terminals; the source, the gate, and the drain:
Outline-4 Computer Architecture
In the n-type transistor, both the source and the drain are negatively-charged and sit on a positively charged well of p-silicon.
Outline-5 Computer Architecture
When positive voltage is applied to the gate, electrons in the p-silicon are attracted to the area under the gate forming an electron channel between the source and the drain.
Outline-6 Computer Architecture
When positive voltage is applied to the drain, the electrons are pulled from the source to the drain. In this state the transistor is on.
開 Outline-7 Computer Architecture
If the voltage at the gate is removed, electrons are not attracted to the area between the source and drain. The pathway is broken and the transistor is turned off.
關 Outline-8 Computer Architecture
Computer Architecture Outline-9
Outline-10 Computer Architecture
A B CI 有了邏輯閘就可做邏輯電路 加法器： S A B CI A B Outline-11 CO Computer Architecture
R' R Q S' clock' S Q'
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答：「數位邏輯設計」 Computer Architecture Outline-13
最後， 電腦的主要部份就都可以做了 暫存器 控制器 控制信號 N Z
clock IR ALU PC
Outline-14 記憶體 Computer Architecture
(passive) (where programs, data live when running)
Devices Input Output
Keyboard, Mouse Disk
(where programs, data live when not running)
Capabilities and performance characteristics of principal functional units, e.g., registers, ALU, shifters, ...
Ways in which these components are interconnected (structure) Information flows between components (data, datapath) Logic and means by which such information flow is controlled (control logic) Register Transfer Level (RTL) description
Computer Architecture Outline-16
Software Hardware Application (IE) Compiler Assembler Operating System (MS Windows) Processor Memory I/O system Datapath & Control Digital Design Circuit Design Transistors Computer Architecture = Instruction Set Architecture + Machine Organization
Instruction Set Architecture Machine Organization
software instruction set hardware Does it have to be hardware?
Coordination of many levels of abstraction
Outline-18 Computer Architecture
High Level Language Program temp = v[k]; v[k] = v[k+1]; v[k+1] = temp;
Assembly Language Program
Machine Language Program lw lw sw sw $15, 0($2) $16, 4($2) $16, 0($2) $15, 4($2) 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111
Control Signal Specification
ALUOP[0:3] <= InstReg[9:11] & MASK
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“ ... the attributes of a [computing] system as seen by the programmer, i.e. the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flows and controls, the logic design, and the physical implementation.” — Amdahl, Blaaw, and Brooks, 1964
Organization of Programmable Storage SOFTWARE
Data Types and Data Structures: Encodings and Representations
Modes of Addressing and Accessing Data Items and Instructions
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Computational Jump and Branch Floating Point
coprocessor Memory Management Special 3 Instruction Formats: all 32 bits wide OP rs rt OP OP rs rd Registers R0 - R31 sa rt immediate jump target PC HI LO funct
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Digital Alpha HP PA-RISC Sun Sparc SGI MIPS Intel ARM
(v1, v3) (v1.1, v2.0) (v8, v9) (MIPS I, II, III, IV, V) (8086,80286,80386, 80486,Pentium, MMX, SIMD, IA-64, ...) (v1,v2…v8) 1992-97 1986-96 1987-95 1986-96 1978 1985-
Computer Architecture Outline-22
RAPID CHANGES It is exciting!
It has never been more exciting!
It impacts every other aspect of electrical engineering and computer science
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: 31310 email: [email protected]
[email protected] Office Hour: wed 16:00-17:00 (
唐翊倫 楊廷量 何培安 梁凱澤
[email protected] O.H.: mon 14:20-15:20 (
[email protected] O.H.: mon 18:30-19:30 (
228) [email protected] O.H.: thu 16:30-17:30 (
[email protected] O.H.: wed 18:30-19:30 (
228) 228) 227)
Computer Architecture Outline-24
Computer Organization and Design: The
Hardware/Software Interface, 4th ed., David Patterson and John Hennessy, 2010
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Computer Organization and Design: The
Hardware/Software Interface,4th ed., D. Patterson and J. Hennessy, 2010 Topic Introduction The Role of Performance Instructions: Language of the Machine Arithmetic for Computers The Processor: Datapath and Control Enhancing Performance with Pipelining Exploiting Memory Hierarchy Storage and Other I/O Topics * Chapter 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6
Computer Architecture Outline-26
Outline-27 Computer Architecture
Learn MIPS instruction set Learn processor emulators and benchmarking 6+ homework assignments (1 per 2 weeks) & 1 final project
Each assignment is a mixture of design, calculation, programming, measurement, and discussion problems Assignments will be posted on the course homepage Independent of, but complement, examinations One mid-term and one final examination Grade breakdown
Homework Assignments & Final project 30% Midterm Exam (7-9PM, April 15): 35% Final Exam (June 10): 35%
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Open Course Ware (OCW) http://ocw.nthu.edu.tw/ocw/index.php?page=course&ci d=76& ShareCourse http://www.sharecourse.net/sc/index.php
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Cannot make examinations
No makeup examinations Cannot turn in homework on time
No late homework is accepted What is cheating?
Study together in groups is encouraged Work must be your own
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