# Classroom Instruction That Works

```Using Marzano
Strategies as a
Response to
Intervention
Presented by Diane Ghastin
April 16, 2010
National Literacy Coaching Summit,
TAMUCC
Agenda
Overview of Research
Strategies / Activities
Q&amp;A
Research
“The most important factor
affecting student learning
is the teacher. “
Robert Marzano
Goal: “…identify those instructional
strategies that have a high probability of
enhancing student achievement for all
students in all subject areas at all grade
levels. “
The Big Nine!
Category
Ave.
Effect
size
Percentile
Gain
1.
Identifying similarities and differences
1.61
45
2.
Summarizing and note taking
1.00
34
3.
Reinforcing effort and providing
recognition
.80
29
.77
28
4.
Homework and Practice
The Big Nine!
Category
Ave.
Effect
size
Percentile
Gain
5. Nonlinguistic Representation
.75
27
6. Cooperative Learning
.73
27
7. Setting objectives and providing feedback .61
23
8. Generating and testing hypotheses
.61
23
9. Questions, cues and advance organizers
.59
22
What is an “effect size?”
To determine effect sizes, a
research technique called metaanalysis is used. “A metaanalysis combines the results
from a number of studies to
determine the average effect of a
given technique…. An effect size
expresses the increase or
decrease in achievement of the
experimental group (the group of
students who are exposed to a
specific instructional technique)
in standard deviation units. “
McREL, 2001
Effect Size / Percentile Gain
An effect size of .73 means that
“the average student who was
exposed to…(the strategy)
…scored 0.73 standard deviations
above the scores of the average
student who was not exposed
to…(the strategy.) Using a
conversion table we can find the
percentile gain for the effect size.
Redfield and Rousseau, 1981
Identifying Similarities
and Differences (45% gain)
Comparing/contrasting
•Venn’s and Beyond
Creating Metaphors/Similes
Analogy Sentences
Analogy Treasure Box
•Analogy Webs
Morphological Analysis
•Word Sorts
Venn Diagrams
Use Venn diagrams for specific comparisons rather than broad topic comparisons.
Draw lines across the circles to keep comparative information together.
Which is faster… yellow or red?
Which is louder… a banana or a
grape?
Which is softer… Coke or Pepsi?
ANALOGY TREASURE BOX
Let students pick two objects and make an analogy statement about them. Ex.
“Superman is like a paperclip because he holds everything together.”
Sent from my iPhone
Analogy Webs
“Literacy Coaching is like _____________ because ________________. “
WORD SORT!
CUT THESE BOXES APART. SORT THE WORDS INTO FOUR SEPARATE CATEGORIES.
WHEN YOU THINK YOU KNOW WHAT THE CATEGORIES ARE ABOUT, WRITE THEIR TITLE
IN THE BOXES WITH THE QUESTION MARKS AND RAISE YOUR HAND. TRY TO BE FIRST!
?
___________
?
___________
?
____________
?
_____________
PANORAMA
SPECULATE
INVISIBILITY
RESPECT
DIORAMA
INSPECT
PROVIDE
VISIBILITY
MOTORAMA
VISION
VIDEO
TELEVISE
VISIBLY
PROVIDENCE
EVIDENT
COSMORAMA
VISTA
VIDEOTAPE
SPECTACULAR
MARINORAMA
SPECIFIC
EVIDENCE
CYCLORAMA
SPECTRUM
Morphological Analysis
Finding the similarities and differences in words
through morphological analysis can be an extremely
powerful tool for vocabulary development…across
contents, and even across languages! Teach word cells
in like categories (cells about numbers one week, then
fire, then animals, colors, government, archaeology,
biology, etc.)
Teach students roots, prefixes and suffixes. Discuss
language of origins.
Watch academic vocabulary (and spelling ability) grow
exponentially!
Akeelah and the Bee:
Summarizing and
Note Taking (34% gain)
•Skills must be taught for note taking in each content
•Delete some information, substitute some, and keep some
•Requires synthesis and analysis of material
•Go beyond Cornell Notes and Double Column notes
•Provide practice with different materials
•Most students do not want to or intend to plagiarize
Summarizing and
Note Taking
1. Skim/Scan
Skimming is vertical and quick; scanning is
horizontal, quick, but searching for specific
information.
2. Sticky Note Summaries
Read a paragraph and fill a tiny sticky note in with a
brief summary; stick it beside the paragraph.
3. WWWWWH
Fold paper into six sections
4. Fishbone Graphic Organizer
WWWWWH, main idea
5. PS-123
Paraphrasing/Summarizing 123: Pick the most
important words in each paragraph or section.
Reinforcing Effort and
Providing Recognition
(29% gain)
Smarty Pants Dance
1. Rewards do not necessarily have a
negative effect on intrinsic
motivation.
2. Reward is most effective when tied
to attainment of a standard
3. Abstract symbol recognition is
more effective than a tangible
reward.
Homework and
Practice (28% gain)
• Elementary students do not
significantly improve their
achievement from homework.
• Elementary students should use
homework to improve study
skills.
• Middle school students have a
much smaller gain in
achievement from homework
than high school students.
Homework and Practice
Parent involvement should be kept to
a minimum.
Provide purpose for homework and
tell students what it is.
Comment on homework – it increases
the “effect” size by almost 20%
Students should learn to provide their
own feedback to homework.
Homework and
Practice
• Skill must be practiced 24
times to reach 80% mastery.
• Fewer but more in depth
during the shaping process
(2nd to 6th practice)
• More accurate more quickly
after shaping phase
Nonlinguistic
Representation (27% gain)
• Visual/Audio presentations
(art, dance, music,
nonverbal)
• Graphic organizers
• Webs, Mind Maps
• Patterns
• Pictures
Cooperative Learning
(27% gain)
• Vary the way the groups are formed
• Avoid homogeneous grouping as
much as possible
• Keep groups small
• Don’t use “brighter” kids to teach less
able students
• All students should have work to do
and be assessed on that work
• Common grades should be on
working as a group.
Setting Objectives and
Providing Feedback (23% gain)
• Provide for some flexibility for students to set
individual goals related to larger goal.
• Goals should be designed around a standard or
objective.
• Contracts allow for individualization of goals.
• Encourage students to evaluate their own work
and give feedback.
• Teacher feedback should be corrective and
timely.
• Using rubrics / scoring guides is helpful if they are
in student-friendly terms.
S.M.A.R.T. GOALS
S = Specific
M = Measurable
A = Attainable
R = Results oriented
T = Time Bound
Jack Canfield in his book, The Success
Principles, states that “Vague goals produce
vague results.” There is no place in your life
for vague goals. If your goals are
ambiguous or incomplete, then you will
achieve results that are also ambiguous or
incomplete.
You want to make your goal as detailed as
possible in order to achieve the specific
results that you desire.
A specific goal is one that is clearly defined
in such a way that anyone could come by
and understand what you intend to
accomplish.
Your goal should contain a detailed
description of what you want to accomplish;
when you want to accomplish it by; and the
action(s) you will take to accomplish it.
Commit to achieving your goals by writing down
the goal. Steven Covey said, &quot;The discipline of
writing something down is the first step toward
making it happen.”
Generating and Testing
Hypotheses (23% gain)
• Deductive
reasoning produces higher
gains than inductive reasoning.
• Students should always explain their
hypotheses (why they think it, how they
arrived at it) and their conclusions.
Questions, Cues, and
Advance Organizers (22% gain)
• Questions: to activate prior knowledge
(anticipation guides)
• Cues: to clue learner in to important
information (skim &amp; scan); use
higher level and analytical
questions more often
• Advance Organizers: use the graphic
organizer that is best suited to
the activity or topic (SIMS templates,
webs for writing, KWL, annotations, etc.)
Questions?
Book Help Desk
How many high yield
strategies can you detect in
this clip?
Useful Web Sites
http://www.tltguide.ccsd.k12.co.us/instructional_tools/
Strategies/Strategies.html