Using Marzano Strategies as a Response to Intervention Presented by Diane Ghastin April 16, 2010 National Literacy Coaching Summit, TAMUCC Agenda Overview of Research Strategies / Activities Q&A Research “The most important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. “ Robert Marzano Goal: “…identify those instructional strategies that have a high probability of enhancing student achievement for all students in all subject areas at all grade levels. “ The Big Nine! Category Ave. Effect size Percentile Gain 1. Identifying similarities and differences 1.61 45 2. Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34 3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition .80 29 .77 28 4. Homework and Practice The Big Nine! Category Ave. Effect size Percentile Gain 5. Nonlinguistic Representation .75 27 6. Cooperative Learning .73 27 7. Setting objectives and providing feedback .61 23 8. Generating and testing hypotheses .61 23 9. Questions, cues and advance organizers .59 22 What is an “effect size?” To determine effect sizes, a research technique called metaanalysis is used. “A metaanalysis combines the results from a number of studies to determine the average effect of a given technique…. An effect size expresses the increase or decrease in achievement of the experimental group (the group of students who are exposed to a specific instructional technique) in standard deviation units. “ McREL, 2001 Effect Size / Percentile Gain An effect size of .73 means that “the average student who was exposed to…(the strategy) …scored 0.73 standard deviations above the scores of the average student who was not exposed to…(the strategy.) Using a conversion table we can find the percentile gain for the effect size. Redfield and Rousseau, 1981 Identifying Similarities and Differences (45% gain) Comparing/contrasting •Venn’s and Beyond Creating Metaphors/Similes Analogy Sentences Analogy Treasure Box •Analogy Webs Morphological Analysis •Word Sorts Venn Diagrams Use Venn diagrams for specific comparisons rather than broad topic comparisons. Draw lines across the circles to keep comparative information together. Stretch your imagination! Which is faster… yellow or red? Which is louder… a banana or a grape? Which is softer… Coke or Pepsi? ANALOGY TREASURE BOX Let students pick two objects and make an analogy statement about them. Ex. “Superman is like a paperclip because he holds everything together.” Sent from my iPhone Analogy Webs “Literacy Coaching is like _____________ because ________________. “ WORD SORT! CUT THESE BOXES APART. SORT THE WORDS INTO FOUR SEPARATE CATEGORIES. WHEN YOU THINK YOU KNOW WHAT THE CATEGORIES ARE ABOUT, WRITE THEIR TITLE IN THE BOXES WITH THE QUESTION MARKS AND RAISE YOUR HAND. TRY TO BE FIRST! ? ___________ ? ___________ ? ____________ ? _____________ PANORAMA SPECULATE INVISIBILITY RESPECT DIORAMA INSPECT PROVIDE VISIBILITY MOTORAMA VISION VIDEO TELEVISE VISIBLY PROVIDENCE EVIDENT COSMORAMA VISTA VIDEOTAPE SPECTACULAR MARINORAMA SPECIFIC EVIDENCE CYCLORAMA SPECTRUM Morphological Analysis Finding the similarities and differences in words through morphological analysis can be an extremely powerful tool for vocabulary development…across contents, and even across languages! Teach word cells in like categories (cells about numbers one week, then fire, then animals, colors, government, archaeology, biology, etc.) Teach students roots, prefixes and suffixes. Discuss language of origins. Watch academic vocabulary (and spelling ability) grow exponentially! Akeelah and the Bee: Summarizing and Note Taking (34% gain) •Skills must be taught for note taking in each content •Delete some information, substitute some, and keep some •Requires synthesis and analysis of material •Go beyond Cornell Notes and Double Column notes •Provide practice with different materials •Most students do not want to or intend to plagiarize Summarizing and Note Taking 1. Skim/Scan Skimming is vertical and quick; scanning is horizontal, quick, but searching for specific information. 2. Sticky Note Summaries Read a paragraph and fill a tiny sticky note in with a brief summary; stick it beside the paragraph. 3. WWWWWH Fold paper into six sections 4. Fishbone Graphic Organizer WWWWWH, main idea 5. PS-123 Paraphrasing/Summarizing 123: Pick the most important words in each paragraph or section. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition (29% gain) Smarty Pants Dance 1. Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation. 2. Reward is most effective when tied to attainment of a standard 3. Abstract symbol recognition is more effective than a tangible reward. Homework and Practice (28% gain) • Elementary students do not significantly improve their achievement from homework. • Elementary students should use homework to improve study skills. • Middle school students have a much smaller gain in achievement from homework than high school students. Homework and Practice Parent involvement should be kept to a minimum. Provide purpose for homework and tell students what it is. Comment on homework – it increases the “effect” size by almost 20% Students should learn to provide their own feedback to homework. Homework and Practice • Skill must be practiced 24 times to reach 80% mastery. • Fewer but more in depth during the shaping process (2nd to 6th practice) • More accurate more quickly after shaping phase Nonlinguistic Representation (27% gain) • Visual/Audio presentations (art, dance, music, nonverbal) • Graphic organizers • Webs, Mind Maps • Patterns • Pictures Cooperative Learning (27% gain) • Vary the way the groups are formed • Avoid homogeneous grouping as much as possible • Keep groups small • Don’t use “brighter” kids to teach less able students • All students should have work to do and be assessed on that work • Common grades should be on working as a group. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback (23% gain) • Provide for some flexibility for students to set individual goals related to larger goal. • Goals should be designed around a standard or objective. • Contracts allow for individualization of goals. • Encourage students to evaluate their own work and give feedback. • Teacher feedback should be corrective and timely. • Using rubrics / scoring guides is helpful if they are in student-friendly terms. S.M.A.R.T. GOALS S = Specific M = Measurable A = Attainable R = Results oriented T = Time Bound Jack Canfield in his book, The Success Principles, states that “Vague goals produce vague results.” There is no place in your life for vague goals. If your goals are ambiguous or incomplete, then you will achieve results that are also ambiguous or incomplete. You want to make your goal as detailed as possible in order to achieve the specific results that you desire. A specific goal is one that is clearly defined in such a way that anyone could come by and understand what you intend to accomplish. Your goal should contain a detailed description of what you want to accomplish; when you want to accomplish it by; and the action(s) you will take to accomplish it. Commit to achieving your goals by writing down the goal. Steven Covey said, "The discipline of writing something down is the first step toward making it happen.” Generating and Testing Hypotheses (23% gain) • Deductive reasoning produces higher gains than inductive reasoning. • Students should always explain their hypotheses (why they think it, how they arrived at it) and their conclusions. Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers (22% gain) • Questions: to activate prior knowledge (anticipation guides) • Cues: to clue learner in to important information (skim & scan); use higher level and analytical questions more often • Advance Organizers: use the graphic organizer that is best suited to the activity or topic (SIMS templates, webs for writing, KWL, annotations, etc.) Questions? Book Help Desk How many high yield strategies can you detect in this clip? Useful Web Sites http://www.tltguide.ccsd.k12.co.us/instructional_tools/ Strategies/Strategies.html http://www.readwritethink.org/lesson_images/lesson54/articles. html Articles written in compare/contrast format http://manila.esu4.org/instructionalstrategies/stories/storyReade r$14 Diane Ghastin is the Literacy Coach at Westwood High School in Round Rock ISD, Austin, Texas. She received a B.S. from Western Michigan University in 1978, a M.Ed. and Reading Specialist certificate from Sam Houston State University in 1983, and a Master Reading Teacher certification in 2008. She has taught for 13 years in Michigan and Texas.