Chapter 1, Section 1.3 Review Questions Question 1 • Question: What role do hypotheses play in scientific inquiry? • Answer: A hypothesis provides a testable explanation for an observation. Question 2 • Question: What is the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable? • Answer: An independent variable is manipulated, a dependent variable shows the effect of that manipulation (it is dependent on the value of the independent variable). Question 3 • Question: How is the meaning of theory in science different from the everyday use of the term? • Answer: A scientific theory is a widely accepted explanation that is supported by evidence. In everyday language a theory means a guess. Question 4 • Question: How are hypotheses and theories related? • Answer: Hypotheses and theories are both proposed explanations for a scientific question. Observations and data collected in testing hypotheses contribute to the broader question that is addressed by a theory. A theory, in turn, provides the framework for new hypotheses. Question 5 • Question: Give examples of different ways in which observations are used in scientific inquiry? • Answer: Scientific questions are developed from initial observations. Observations are also made to test hypotheses. Question 6 • Question: Why is the statement “All life is made of cells” an example of a theory? Explain • Answer: The idea that all life is made of cells changed the way scientists thought about what defines an organism. Not only did it encompass all accumulated evidence, but it also provided a framework for new investigations.