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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A COMPUTER
INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
FOR COLLEGE OF EDUCATION STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
A P h.D RESEARCH PROPOSAL SEMINAR
BY
AKPOKIERE, Roseline
99/980N004
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, NIGERIA.
SUPERVISOR: PROF. A.S.OLORUNDARE
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the problem
•The relevance of science education in developing countries.
•Chemistry provides the basic knowledge and understanding
of principles for technological advancement.
•The knowledge of organic chemistry is required to
understand its application to various studies.
•Chemistry is one of the most difficult subjects in the school
curriculum (Bojezuk, 1982).
•Studies conducted revealed that organic chemistry is
perceived by both students and teachers to be abstract,
misconceived and difficult to comprehend (Oyelekan, 2006;
Musa, 2010; and Onijamowo, 2010).
Cont’.
•Some of the goals of the Colleges of Education as highlighted
in the National Policy of Education (FRN, 2004) are to produce
highly efficient teachers.
•COE students declining performance in chemistry (NCCE,
2006 Report).
•Efficacy of the use of computer in facilitating the teaching
and learning of chemistry.
•lack of indigenous computer software has been attributed to
students low achievement in organic chemistry.
Statement of the problem
•The performance of students in chemistry at both West African
school certificate examination and at the colleges of Education
examinations
•ICT has the potentials of improving the existing methods of
teaching
in schools.
•Interactive computer learning packages has positive effect on
learner’s understanding of concepts in
chemistry(Mathew&Secombe,2006;Oyelekan,2009;Tekmen,2006;
Pektas,2008)
•Difficult and abstract concepts in chemistry can be encoded or
programmed into computer softwares. ( Oloruntegbe and Odutuyi,
2003),.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is to:
•Design and develop a Computer Instructional Package
(OCIP) in organic chemistry for colleges of education in
Nigeria.
•Validate the OCIP to conform to the acceptable
standards of educational technology.
•Determine the performance level of students in organic
chemistry when taught using OCIP.
•Determine the influence of scoring levels of students on
performance when taught organic chemistry using OCIP
•Determine whether there will be difference a in the
performance of male and female students when taught
organic chemistry using OCIP.
Research questions
The following questions will be answered in this study:
•What are the procedures involved in the development of the
OCIP?
•Does the validation procedure of the developed OCIP conform
to educational technology standards?
•What is the performance level of students when taught organic
chemistry using OCIP?
•What is the performance of students in organic chemistry on the
basis of their scoring level when taught using OCIP?
•Is there any difference in the performance of male and female
students when taught organic chemistry using the OCIP?
Research hypotheses
The following null hypotheses are formulated and will be
tested to answer the research questions;
•HO1 There will be no significant difference in the
performance of high, medium and low scoring level of
students taught organic chemistry using OCIP.
•HO2 There will be no significant difference in the
performance of male and female students taught organic
chemistry using OCIP.
Scope of the study
• Design, development and validation of Organic
Chemistry Instructional Package (OCIP)
•The content of the OCIP will be designed to cover an
aspect of organic chemistry course CHE 123 as a
course in the N.C.C.E Minimum standard.
•The whole presentation will be made in Hyper Text
Markup language (HTML) format so that it can also be
up loaded on the internet.
•The geographical scope will be limited to Federal
College of Education Kontagora.
Clarification of Major Terms and Variables.
The following terms would be clarified as used in the
study;
•OCIP
•Information and Communication Technology (ICT
•Computer Instructional package
•Computer Aided Instruction
•HTML
•Hypermedia
•Multimedia
•CD-ROM
•Microsoft Word:
•Macromedia Firework
Significance of the study
The findings of this study would be beneficial to different
categories
of
people
involved
in
curriculum
development, implementation, and evaluation such as;
• Teachers,
• Lecturers in the higher institutions,
• Students,
• Researchers,
• Schools and
• Educational policy makers.
The review has been carried out under the following headings:
•The objectives and content of chemistry curriculum for colleges of
education.
•The nature and meaning of organic chemistry.
•Theoretical framework for the study
•Trends in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in
education globally, and in Nigeria.
•Instructional Systems Design Model.
•Computer software Development, Validation and students
’achievement in chemistry.
•Studies related to students’ difficulties in science and organic
chemistry
concepts.
•Effects of gender and scoring level on students’ performance in
science and chemistry.
•Appraisal of the literature reviewed.
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
•Research Designs
• Sampling and sampling techniques,
•Procedure for developing the organic
instructional package (OCIP)
•Procedure for validating the organic
instructional package
•procedure for data collection
•Data analysis techniques.
chemistry
chemistry
Research Design
•
Design and development type of research.
• It involves the designing and developing an organic chemistry
instructional package (OCIP) for NCE students in Nigeria.
• The design and development would adapt the Dick and Carey
(2005) model Instructional System Design (ISD).
• The ten simple and interactive components which are
simplified into the five basic phases of ADDIE namely; analyses,
design, development, implement and evaluation will be the guide
for the development of the OCIP.
• The dynamic and interactive nature of the Dick and Carey
(2006) model has necessitated its choice as the platform for the
development of the organic chemistry instructional package
(OCIP).
Sample and Sampling Technique
•The population for this study will comprise all NCE
chemistry students in Nigeria.
• 100 level students in chemistry department, Federal
College of Education (F.C.E) Kontagora would be
purposively selected for this study.
• The selection is on the basis that the course (CHE 123)
is registered for by all NCE 1 level students in the
department of chemistry as stipulated in the N.C.E.
minimum standards for Colleges of Education.
Procedure for design and development of Organic
Chemistry Instructional Package (OCIP)
•The development of the OCIP shall be in four stages : design,
development, implementation and evaluation.
•computer expert, software developer, educational technologist
and chemistry experts would be involved in the development of
the OCIP.
•The procedures would be in three phases which are:
Phase one: Design and development of OCIP.
Creating and organizing the instructional content to support the
programme requirements.
•Identification of instructional objectives and the instructional
strategy.
•determine sequence and structure i.e specify media requirement
based on hardware and software requirements (simulations and
animations).
•the integration of these steps would result into the OCIP .
Phase two: Validation and reliability of the organic chemistry
Validation of the Organic Chemistry
Instructional Package (OCIP)
The following instruments would be used for the validation of the
OCIP study;
1. Subject Content Validation Questionnaire 1 (Appendix 2).
2. Computer Expert Validation Questionnaire 2 (Appendix 3).
3. Students 'Interview Protocol. (Appendix 4)
4. Educational Technology Expert Validation Questionnaire-3
(Appendix 5)
5. Students’ Response Questionnaire 4 (Appendix 6).
6. Organic Chemistry Achievement Test (OCAT) (Appendix 7)
•To determine instrument reliability a pilot study will be conducted
by administering the OCAT to thirty (30) students in College of
education Minna.
Validation of OCIP
The validation of OCIP will be done in the following stages and in
line with the Dick and Carey (2005).
Stage 1: Consultant (Experts) validation, original copy of the OCIP
will be given to two experts in computer, and two experts in
Educational Technology for validation. The computer experts will
also be given questionnaires 2 and 4 respectively
Stage 2: One –to – one validation with students
Stage 3: Students’ small group validation.
One - to - One Validation
•Ten (10) 100 level will be randomly selected from chemistry
department in College of Education Minna
Cont’.
•These students will also be interviewed at the end of
this stage using the structured oral interview questions
on the OCIP.
Small Group Validation
•Twenty (20) purposively selected 100 level chemistry
students from COE, Minna, to ascertain the efficiency of
the previous corrections made.
•As the instruction proceeds the researcher takes note of
the students’ challenges in using the instructional
package.
• students Response questionnaire 4 will then be
administered to the students (field trial)
Data AnalysisTechniques
• Responses to Questionnaire on OCIP validation
would be analyzed using percentages.
•The students’ scores in organic chemistry
achievement Test (OCAT) would be analyzed
using percentages.
• Hypotheses will be analyzed using Analysis of
Covariance (ANCOVA) from Statistical Package
for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.
THANK
FOR
YOU
LISTENING
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