Prejudice

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Where did you see prejudice
(specifically, racism)?
 Where does “racism” lie?
 Who can be racist (sexist, etc.)?
 What are some possible causes of
racism?

Expectations
 Perception and Cognitive processing

› Memory storage & retrieval processes:
Selective attention
› Input: perceptual filters: Selection/
Selective perception
› Storage: Long and short-term memory
› Retrieval: Forgetting, memory
interference: Selective recall
 Interpretation
Social Identity Theory
Interpersonal
Intergroup
Gudykunst & Lim, 1986
High
Interpersonal
Low
Low
Low
Intergroup
High
Interpersonal: individual perception of
communicators, based on personal
experiences
 Intercultural: real differences in values,
beliefs, behaviors, regardless of
awareness
 Intergroup: perceived differences
between communicators based on
group identity (e.g., in-group/out-group
perception, stereotypes, prejudice)


Axes:
› Internal/External
› Controlability
› Permanence

Biases
› Self-protective bias:
› Other biases (primacy, recency, consistency, etc.)
› Fundamental attribution error:
› Ultimate attribution error:
 “We lost the game because
Negative Outcome
Me/my group
“Them”/ “their”
group
Positive outcome

Categorization?
› Why is it good?
› Why is it bad?
› How does it work?

Stereotypes
›
›
›
›
›
Overgeneralizations
Social stereotype
Content and other dimensions
Kernel of truth
Media

Whites (of Blacks):
›
›
›
›
›

Loud/Noisy
Showy
Aggressive
Active
Boastful
Blacks (of Whites)
›
›
›
›
›
Demanding
Manipulative
Rude
Critical
Superficial
Behavior or attitude?
 Intent or result of action?

› Communicative prejudice: ethophaulisms
(epithets)
› Racial jokes

Individual or Institutional
› Direct versus indirect institutional racism
Overt versus subtle/symbolic/everyday
 Who can be racist, sexist, etc.?

Exploitation theory (e.g., Marxist)
 Scapegoating
 Authoritarian personality
 Structural approach

The main point:
 Four (or three) main aspects)

› Spheres: group identities on which one can
be intolerant
› Stances: positions towards various groups
› Levels/layers of analysis: levels at which
intolerance exists

Layers: Implies: ____________________
Biological/instinct
 Individual level

› Behavioral/psychodynamic
› Cognitive
Group-level
 Message-level (rhetoric, media, f2f)
 + Policy/law level?
 + History/ current impetus?

Hate Crimes against Asians: An
interaction in Bro-Menn Hospital: “Why
don’t you people just go home?”
 Hate crimes website:
http://infidelsarecool.com/2010/01/22/fb
i-releases-2008-hate-crime-statistics/
 The Contact Hypothesis:

› Defined
› Clarifications
Anti-Indian sentiment in B-N
 Heterosexism/homophobia in high
schools
 Racial tensions in a Cincinnati
community
 Palestine/Jewish Israeli tensions

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