Power Point Presentation

By: Amy Bland, Misti Holloway,
and Katherine Jones
Ineffective Grading Practices
◦ Zeros
Effective Grading Practices
◦ Tutoring
◦ Dropping the lowest grade
◦ Opportunities to correct assignments/tests
Assessment for Learning (AfL)
Zeros—What effect do these grades have on student
worth and achievement?
Students are worth more than a zero and we as
educators should value their efforts even if a day late.
“The difference between failure and the honor roll often
depends on grading policies of the teacher”
(Reeves, D.(2008) Leading to change/effective
grading practices. Educational Leadership.)
What are we really telling a student they are worth?
Is there any reason to try?
It is difficult to recover from a zero.
Assignment is…
1 day late
2 days late
3 days late
5 days late
This encourages the
student to complete work
and not accept being
worth 0!
Practices vary greatly among
teachers in the same school.
(Reeves, 2008)
The student would
miss school events
until the late work is
turned in.
Consequences are
Zeros are not
acceptable practice
Our goal is complete
“ Giving a zero on a 100
point scale for missing
work is a mathematical
inaccuracy.” (Reeves, 2004)
Students can lose
privileges instead of
receiving a zero until
work is completed.
The assignment must
be completed and
turned in for
“Threats of failure do not
work for students”
(Reeves, 2204, p. 325).
What is the lowest
possible grade on the
100 point scale?
The numerical value of
a D which is a 60.
Just 2-3 zeros can cause
failure for a semester.
2-3 failures can cause a
student to drop out of
school ( Reeves, 2004).
Tutoring/Review Sessions and Materials
• Study Guides—Structured means for students to determine how well
they understand class content
• Practice Tests—Help review concepts in another structured format
Dropping the Lowest Grade
Opportunities to correct assignments/tests
Process of Completing Corrections
Assessment procedures that offer more
meaningful information and purpose for the
practitioner and learner encourage and
enhance the learning process (Atkin, Black,
Coffey, 2001; Stake, 1998; 1999).
Measures that simply provide ranking
information may be counterproductive, as the
focus seems to have shifted from learning to
test-taking skills (Perlman, 2003).
The sharing of learning goals/intentions with pupils
 helping pupils know and recognize the criteria for success
Providing feedback
 marking that helps pupils to identify how to improve
 learning self-assessment techniques to discover areas
they need to improve
The use of effective questioning to assess progress
both the teacher and pupils by
 reviewing and reflecting on pupils' performance and
 setting targets for improvement
Sharing Learning Goals/Intentions
Clear success criteria-written or verbal
Using consistent feedback and marking
Pupil self assessment and peer self
Using effective questioning
Target setting
Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall, &
Wiliam, (2003)
Learn how effectively
and easily to use
anecdotal notes.
Learn the
that are
aimed at
Learn to
practices that
develop critical
Atkin, J. M., Black, P., & Coffey, J. (2001). Classroom assessment and the National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC:
National Academy Press.
Black, P., Harrison, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2003). Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice. New York, NY : Open
University Press McGraw-Hill Education.
Carifio, J. & Carey, Theodore. (2009, Nov/Dec). A critical examination of current minimum grading policy recommendations. High School Journal, 93(1),
Cherepinsky, V. (2011, April). Self-Reflective grading: Getting students to learn from their mistakes. Primus: Problems, Resources & Issues in
Mathematics Undergraduate Studies, 21(3), 294-301.
Fay, Charles H. & Gordon, Michael E. (2010). The effects of grading and teaching practices on students' perceptions of grading practices. College
Teaching, 58(3), 93-98.
Hadsell, L. & MacDermott, R. (2010, July). Grade dropping: Strategic behavior and student 'satisficing'. American Journal of Business
Education, 3(7), 57-71.
Perlman, C. (2003). Practice tests and study guides: Do they help? Are they ethical? What is ethical test preparation practice? ERIC
Document (ED 48D062).
Reeves, D. (2008, February). Leading to change: Effective grading practices. Educational Leadership, 65,(5), 85-87.
Reeves, D. (2004, December). The case against the zero. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(4), 324-325
Stake, R. (1998). Some comments on assessment in U.S. education. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 6(14), 1-8.