Ethos appeals to an audience by creating an atmosphere of trust.
Ethos highlights the character of its source. We look less to the message than to the person who’s delivering it. Ethos is all about CREDIBILITY: › The source strikes us as authoritative.
› › › The source strikes us as worthy of respect.
The source strikes us as likeable.
The source strikes us as honest.
A doctor endorsing a diet plan.
A sports figure endorsing athletic shoes.
A celebrity endorsing just about anything.
An “everyman” figure endorsing a product who strikes us as honest and likeable and a lot like us.
Buy this book because Oprah says to! (She’s honest and level-headed and knows a good read when she sees one—plus she’s rich and famous!)
Pathos appeals to an audience through emotionally charged language and images.
Pathos appeals to both positive emotions like love and sympathy and to negative emotions like anger and insecurity.
Pathos is all about gut reactions that we don’t analyze. It has the greatest potential to spur the audience to act.
Ads that feature adorable kids.
Ads that feature shocking or violent images.
Ads that show embarrassing situations that prey on insecurities.
Ads that feature sexy actors that arouse sexual desire.
If you don’t buy me Pampers, you’re making me cry!
Look how happy I am now!
Logos appeals to the audience through logical argument.
Logos provides reasons and points to cause and effect.
Logos is the main method of persuasion in academic writing and speaking.
Ads that quote statistics.
Ads that argue for superior performance or durability.
Ads that claim health benefits.
Ads that use deductive reasoning (X is good, Y is an example of X, so Y is good).
Research shows there are good reasons to drink fluids when you exercise, and Gatorade is a fluid !
Rhetoric usually involves a mixture of all three types of persuasion.
Even in academic writing, where logos is predominant, authors attempt to earn their readers’ trust by appearing authoritative and credible (ethos), and may also bring in emotional anecdotes or case studies as supporting evidence or employ subtly charged language (pathos).
ETHOS: Name of organization gives credibility.
PATHOS: Shocking image of bloody body creates sense of outrage.
LOGOS: Text makes argument that reporters need to inform public about what goes on in combat zones.
ETHOS = appeal to character (TRUST ME!) PATHOS = appeal to emotion (GUT RESPONSE!) LOGOS = appeal to reason (LOGIC’S ON MY SIDE!) logos ethos pathos