“Psychologists investigating perception are increasingly insistent that what is perceived depends upon the observer’s perceptual frame of reference”. Robert T. Oliver, “ Forward,” Philosophy, Rhetoric and Argumentation, ed. Maurice Nathanson and Henry W. Johnstone, Jr. (University Park, Pennsylvania, 1965), pp. x-xi By Robert B. Kaplan Language Learning Three decades of research: 60’s - Kaplan discovered problem of L2 organization Linguistic – emphasizes the influence of the writer’s first language (L1) organizational structures Cultural –organizational structures strongly influenced by background of the student Educational Explanations – reviews the background of how writers developed their organizational skills L1 writer is using a schematic code natural to their background while the native English reader is using theirs. • Language and writing are cultural experiences • Linguistic patterns and rhetorical conventions from a first language often transfer to writing in ESL and can cause interference. • When international students or bicultural students are made aware of their natural pattern they develop an awareness of this tendency in their own writing. • When their linguistic / cultural tendencies are made clear, students can develop effective strategies for adapting to meet the expectations of the “target” language community. • Awareness of cultural rhetorical patterns can help teachers support success of international/ bicultural students in academic courses. Application Reverse Engineering • Short text selection Energize r Batteries • Recreate text using “outline form” Australian Advertisement Different Styles of communication Outline for Advertising All Over the World “Jacko” Advertising All Over the World Selling products is the goal Problems with language and culture New messages in ads Customs New way to sell • Students compile linear information into paragraphs and essay Advertising global I. Australian Advertisement A. Energizer Batteries B. “Jacko” – Australian football hero C. Failed in US a. Different customs II. Selling products is the goal A. Advertising global B. New way to sell C.World becoming smaller III. Problems with language and culture A. Customs B. New messages in ads a. Translation doesn’t work i.Example –Chevy Nova ii. Example – Brannif Airlines IV. Different Styles of communication A. Firms write new ads B. Exact words a. U.S., Britain, Germany C. Ads with feelings a. Japan This method prevents plagiarism. .