Issues & Implementation at Grades 6-12

Improving Education for
English Learners:
Research-Based Approaches
English Learner and Support Services
Professional Learning Series
December 2, 2010
Chapter 3 (pp. 151-199)
English Language
Issues & Implementation at
Grades 6-12
Susana Dutro, E.L. Achieve
Kate Kinsella, San
Francisco State University
Based on a presentation by
Tony Mora and Karla Groth
Region 9 COE leads
San Diego County Office of Education
Today’s format
• Input/information
• Discussion with a partner
• Small group discussion
Rethinking English Language Instruction for
Adolescent English Learners
The authors include:
A discussion of the l__________ ch_________ faced by
adolescent English learners
II. An overview of the d_________ among English learners in
grades 6-12 & standards-based English proficiency levels
III. A rationale for i_________ E____ in the secondary context
IV. An analysis of common course p_________ for adolescent
English learners & the potential sh___________ of those
V. A m_________ for instructed ELD in the secondary school
I. Linguistic Challenges for Adolescent
English Learners
a. Complex Linguistic Knowledge (p. 153)
“Adolescent English learners face a particularly daunting
task. To succeed in schooling, they must gain a
multifaceted knowledge of the English language.” p. 153
6 aspects:
Formal & Informal Discourse Styles
Academic & Social Functions
I. Linguistic Challenges for Adolescent
English Learners (continued)
b. Academic English (pp. 153-155)
“Academic English requires sufficient background
knowledge to apply general knowledge of words
differently across subject areas.” p. 154
“We argue that to accelerate the language proficiency
of English learners, teachers of all disciplines must
make “visible” the otherwise “invisible” skills of
content-specific academic language.” p. 154
I. Linguistic Challenges for Adolescent
English Learners (continued)
c. Gaps in Language Proficiency (p. 155)
Many English learners develop oral fluency for “face
to face communication,” but cannot perform task
that require academic language proficiency.
“This finding suggests that although a high number of
adolescent English learners are gaining fluency in
English as measured by the CELDT, a disturbingly high
percentage of these same learners are demonstrating
a limited command of the vocabulary and structures of
academic English necessary for successful schooling.”
p. 155
Processing Time
• Read slides 6-8 to yourself.
• Using the organizer, write down any reaction
you have to the information.
• Share with your partner first. (Timed-pairshare) Each person has two minutes.
• Small group discussion: six minutes.
II. Diversity of Adolescent English
Learners (pp. 156-157)
Adolescent English learners come with a range of experiences
1. Literacy and content knowledge in the primary language
2. Previous experience in American schools
3. English language knowledge
 A “one-size fits all” approach will not work & particular
attention needs to be paid to Long Term EL’s (p. 157)
Levels of English Proficiency
pp. 158-163
• Explanation of levels of English
proficiency adapted from Systematic
English Language Development (Dutro
• ELD standards indicate a student’s
instructional level along a continuum of
English skills
III. A Rationale for Instructed ELD
pp. 163-166
Adolescent English learners must have a
c__________ second language base if they are to
be successful in standards-based course work.
Consistent, e_______, and purposeful language
instruction with r________ structured practice is
necessary for adolescent English learners to
develop a competent command of school-based
terms and internalize the forms of academic
III. A Rationale for Instructed ELD
ELD Instruction: Language is in the foreground and content is
in the background.
Content Instruction: Content is in the foreground and language
is in the background.
(p. 163-164)
ELD Instruction
Content Instruction
Figure 3.2 Blueprint for Instruction of
Adolescent English Learners p. 165
English Language Arts Instruction
Math, SS, Science,
PE, Arts
Instructed ELD
Grade-Level ELA
Gain literacy skills
needed to
(for students
performing below
grade level)
Achieve grade-level
content standards
Develop a solid
English language
foundation needed to
fully engage in
academic and real-life
Achieve grade-level
content standards
Explicit Language Instruction
For Content Learning
Purpose: Teach language needed…
Content: Determined by lesson & student
knowledge of English
Teachers Need: tools to plan lang. &
content learning. Support through
collaborative planning
• How is the blueprint similar to the EL program in
your district/school?
• How is it different from what occurs in your
• What areas need to be addressed?
• Pairs (2 min. each) then small groups (6 minutes)
IV. Common Student Placements and
Potential Shortcomings
English Language Development (ELD) p. 166
Many adolescent EL’s do not receive ELD support once they have
reached upper intermediate level on the CELDT
Reading Intervention pp. 167-168
Often based on CST or placement test without consideration for
the English level or primary language skills
Sheltered content area instruction pp. 168-169
Focus almost exclusively on access to the core/content. Language
learning often becomes secondary or a non-existent part of
instruction. Opportunity to develop the skills for speaking &
writing about the content is lost.
Special Education p. 169
IEP’s for English learners need to include language proficiency
goals and objectives.
V. A Model for Explicit
Language Instruction pp. 171-199
1. Describe a process for determining
three features of explicit language
instruction. pp. 171- 180
2. Provide concrete examples of a
model of instructed ELD.
pp. 181- 199
V. A Model for Explicit
Language Instruction
1. Purposeful uses of language identified in ELD
standards (language functions) (Figure 3.3 p. 171)
Purposes of language
To perform cognitive tasks
To express thinking orally and in writing
To inform text structure
To engage in social and academic conversation
Relevance to EL Instruction:
Participate in discussion
Describe, explain, and elaborate
Express action and time relationships
Draw Conclusions
(extended explanation pp. 172-174)
V. A Model for Explicit
Language Instruction
2. Language tools needed to accomplish these goals
(brick and mortar words) (Figure 3.3 p. 171)
What language tools are needed to communicate for
different purposes?
What language is needed to comprehend text and
express thinking orally and in writing?
Mortar-Functional words and phrases in sentences
» Would have liked to, in case of, given that
Bricks-Topic specific words
» Tree, elbow (basic)
» Debate, government, arid (general)
» War of Independence, germinate (specialized)
( extended explanation pp. 174-177)
“Students must learn the
meanings of “bricks” (words).
In contrast, they must learn
how to use “mortar”.”
V. A Model for Explicit
Language Instruction (continued)
3. Robust and contextualized instruction that
includes many opportunities to engage in
language practice (error free language &
language that is easily produced) (Figure 3.3,
p. 171)
How are language tools introduced, modeled, and practiced
using an I/We/You Do It approach?
What opportunities for structured interaction are provided for
students to practice the language they are learning?
How are students supported in gaining oral and written
(extended explanation pp. 178-180)
V. A Model for Explicit Language
Instruction pp. 171-199
2. Provides concrete examples of a
model of instructed ELD.
pp. 181- 199
V. A Model for Explicit Language
Instruction pp. 171-199
from pp. 181-199
Audience participation in sequential
order. 
A copy is available of these ideas.
Thank You!
“Adolescents whose second-language
learning needs are conscientiously met
can and will make strides in their
secondary schooling better equipped to
realize their academic and real-life
-Dutro & Kinsella, p. 199