Parte 3 Elettronica di potenza: a.Sistemi elettronici

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Parte 3
Elettronica di potenza:
a. Sistemi elettronici di potenza – cap. 1
M h
Mohan.
b. Interruttori elettronici di potenza – cap.
2 Mohan.
c. Raddrizzatori non controllati – cap. 5
Mohan
Mohan.
d. Raddrizzatori controllati – cap. 6
Mohan.
Copyright © 2003
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-1
Chapter 1 Power Electronic Systems
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-2
1
Power Electronic Systems
• Block diagram
• Role of Power Electronics
• Reasons for growth
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1-3
Linear Power Supply
• Series transistor as an adjustable resistor
• Low Efficiency
• Heavy and bulky
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-4
2
Switch-Mode Power Supply
• Transistor as a switch
• High Efficiency
• High-Frequency Transformer
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-5
Basic Principle of Switch-Mode Synthesis
• Constant switching frequency
• pulse width controls the average
• L-C filters the ripple
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-6
3
Application in Adjustable Speed Drives
•
•
Conventional drive wastes energy across the throttling
valve to adjust flow rate
Using power electronics, motor-pump speed is adjusted
efficiently to deliver the required flow rate
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1-7
Scope and Applications
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1-8
4
Power Processor as a Combination of
Converters
• Most practical topologies require an energy
storage element, which also decouples the input
and the output side converters
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1-9
Power Flow through Converters
• Converter is a g
general term
• An ac/dc converter is shown here
• Rectifier Mode of operation when power from ac to dc
• Inverter Mode of operation when power from ac to dc
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-10
5
AC Motor Drive
• Converter 1 rectifies line-frequency ac into dc
• Capacitor acts as a filter; stores energy; decouples
• Converter 2 synthesizes low-frequency ac to motor
• Polarity of dc-bus voltage remains unchanged
– ideally suited for transistors of converter 2
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1-11
Matrix Converter
• Very general structure
• Would benefit from bi-directional and bi-polarity switches
• Being considered for use in specific applications
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1-12
6
Interdisciplinary Nature of Power Electronics
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1-13
Chapter 2 Overview of Power
Semiconductor Devices
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1-14
7
Diodes
• On and off states controlled by the power circuit
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1-15
Diode Turn-Off
• Fast-recovery diodes have a small reverse-recovery time
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1-16
8
Thyristors
• Semi-controlled device
• Latches ON by a gate-current pulse if forward biased
• Turns-off if current tries to reverse
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-17
Thyristor in a Simple Circuit
•
For successful turn-off, reverse voltage required
for an interval greater than the turn-off interval
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-18
9
Generic Switch Symbol
• Idealized switch symbol
• When
Wh on, currentt can flow
fl
only
l in
i the
th direction
di ti off the
th arrow
• Instantaneous switching from one state to the other
• Zero voltage drop in on-state
• Infinite voltage and current handling capabilities
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-19
Switching Characteristics (linearized)
Switching Power Loss is
proportional
p
p
to:
• switching frequency
• turn-on and turn-off times
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1-20
10
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
• Used commonly in the past
• Now used in specific applications
• Replaced by MOSFETs and IGBTs
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1-21
Various Configurations of BJTs
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1-22
11
MOSFETs
• Easy to control by the gate
• Optimal for low-voltage operation at high switching frequencies
• On-state resistance a concern at higher voltage ratings
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-23
Gate-Turn-Off Thyristors (GTO)
• Slow switching speeds
• Used at very high power levels
• Require elaborate gate control circuitry
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1-24
12
GTO Turn-Off
• Need a turn-off snubber
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1-25
IGBT
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1-26
13
Comparison of Controllable Switches
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1-27
Summary of Device Capabilities
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1-28
14
Chapter 5
Diode Rectifiers
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-29
Diode Rectifier Block Diagram
• Uncontrolled utility interface (ac to dc)
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15
A Simple Circuit
• Resistive load
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A Simple Circuit (R-L Load)
• Current continues to flows for a while even after the input
voltage has gone negative
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16
A Simple Circuit (Load has a dc back-emf)
• Current begins to flow when the input voltage exceeds the dc back-emf
• Current continues to flows for a while even after the input voltage has
gone below the dc back-emf
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-33
Single-Phase Diode Rectifier Bridge
• Large capacitor at the dc output for filtering and energy
storage
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-34
17
Diode-Rectifier Bridge Analysis
• Two simple (idealized) cases to begin with
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1-35
Redrawing Diode-Rectifier Bridge
• Two groups, each with two diodes
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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18
Waveforms with a
purely resistive load
and a purely dc current
at the output
• In both cases, the dc-side
voltage waveform is the same
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-37
Diode-Rectifier Bridge Input Current
• Idealized case with a purely dc output current
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19
Diode-Rectifier Bridge Analysis with ACSide Inductance
• Output current is assumed to be purely dc
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-39
Understanding Current Commutation
• Assuming inductance in this circuit to be zero
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1-40
20
Understanding Current Commutation (cont.)
• Inductance in this circuit is included
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1-41
Current Commutation Waveforms
• Shows the volt-seconds needed to commutate current
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1-42
21
Current Commutation in Full-Bridge Rectifier
• Shows the necessary volt-seconds
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1-43
Understanding Current Commutation
• Note the current loops for analysis
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1-44
22
Rectifier with a dcside voltage
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1-45
Diode-Rectifier with a Capacitor Filter
• Power electronics load is represented by an equivalent load
resistance
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-46
23
Diode Rectifier Bridge
• Equivalent circuit for analysis on one-half cycle basis
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-47
Diode-Bridge Rectifier: Waveforms
• Analysis using MATLAB
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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24
Diode-Bridge Rectifier: Waveforms
• Analysis using PSpice
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1-49
Input Line-Current Distortion
• Analysis using PSpice
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-50
25
Line-Voltage Distortion
• PCC is the point of common coupling
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-51
Line-Voltage Distortion
• Distortion in voltage supplied to other loads
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-52
26
Chapter 6
Thyristor Converters
• Controlled conversion of ac into dc
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-53
Thyristor Converters
• Two-quadrant conversion
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-54
27
Primitive circuits
with thyristors
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1-55
Thyristor Triggering
• ICs available
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-56
28
Full-Bridge Thyristor Converters
• Single-phase and three-phase
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1-57
Single-Phase Thyristor Converters
• Two groups with two thyristor each
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1-58
29
1-Phase Thyristor Converter Waveforms
• Assuming zero ac-side inductance
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1-59
Average DC Output Voltage
• Assuming zero ac-side inductance
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1-60
30
Input Line-Current Waveforms
• Harmonics, power and reactive power
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-61
1-Phase Thyristor Converter
• Finite ac-side inductance; constant dc output
current
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1-62
31
Thyristor Converter Waveforms
• Finite ac-side inductance
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Thyristor Converter: continuous Mode
• This mode can occur in a dc-drive at light loads
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1-64
32
Thyristor Converter Waveforms
• PSpice-based simulation
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1-65
Thyristor Converter Waveforms:
Discontinuous Conduction Mode
• PSpice-based simulation
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1-66
33
Thyristor Converters: Inverter Mode
• Assuming the ac-side inductance to be zero
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by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1-67
34
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