Nasser and Egypt 2003

advertisement
NASSER AND EGYPT: GROUP 2
Julian Andrews, Christopher Hinkle, Atticus Kleen,
Ethan Livermore, Hannah Shilling, Liam Towey
THE COUP OF 1952
Photo courtesy of Associated Press
THE COUP OF 1952

Free officers movement. Lead by Muhammad
Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser- The 25th of
January became a very important date that took
the name “Black Saturday” where hundreds of
buildings were attacked and looted. In addition a
couple Egyptians and Europeans died in these
attacks. This was when the king started to get
uneasy about who was supporting him. The king
dismissed the Free Officers as “a bunch of pimps”
(Pearson, 222)
THE COUP OF 1952

Kingdom of Egypt. Lead by King Farouk- The
United Kingdom backed the Kingdom of Egypt
because they wanted to keep control of Egypt. The
United States and the Soviet Union promoted the
revolution and promoted the Free Officers because
Britain's rule over Egypt was corrupt. Britain tried
to create the Middle eastern version of NATO
called the MEDO (Middle East Defence
Organization) the Egyptian government just saw it
as a ploy for foreign powers to establish
themselves in the Canal Zone (Pearson, 222)
DOMESTIC POLICIES UP TO 1955

Economic Change– Land Reform
 Land
reform was seen as crucial to “improve
Egypt’s impoverished, agrarian economy”. 73% of
the population relied on farming. Land “shortage”
was a significant issue. Attempts in the 1940’s to
reform land ownership had largely failed because of
the King’s objections. While only a handful of
families had land taken from them, and only 10% of
cultivable land was redistributed, the importance
lied in the symbolic act by the Free Officers
(Pearson, 225).
DOMESTIC POLICIES UP TO 1955

The Liberation Rally

The Liberation Rally: The Wafd Party, Muslim
Brotherhood, and the communists were the most
popular political parties in country. By 1953, all of the
political parties but not the Muslim Brotherhood,
independent trade unions, and student political groups
were abolished. To replace them, the Liberation Rally
was created to be a mass movement of the people.
Nasser was the Secretary General of the Liberation
Rally and said that the Rally would bring unity,
discipline and work. It helped Nasser to have a strong
position to get to power (Pearson, 226).
DOMESTIC POLICIES UP TO 1955

The Philosophy of Revolution
 Nasser
believed in political freedom. He thought
the military should only “lead the way” in a nation
but not lead. His main goal was achieving economic
and social change, and he wrote a manifesto The
Philosophy of Revolution in 1953. Published in
1954, it described how reform was difficult and
outlined how over many years he planned to
change Egypt’s system. (Pearson, 226).
GAMAL ABDEL NASSER
Photo courtesy of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nasser.jpg
NASSER’S STEPS TO POWER

Step 1- Naguib is undermined
 Naguib wanted some things that Nasser didn’t such
as: a return to parliamentary democracy, better
relations with the Muslim brotherhood, end to
military rule (Pearson, 227).
 Feb 1954: Naguib attempts to step down b/c he
lost support from the RCC (Pearson, 227).
 Naguib re-instated as the president, but with
Nasser as the prime minister (Pearson, 228).
NASSER’S STEPS TO POWER

Step 2- Popular unrest is used to call for change
 Nasser makes speech pledging to restore
parliamentary government by July 1954. Made
numerous promises during that speech (Pearson, 228).
 Caused problems and unrest among many sections of
Egyptian population because people feared that
democracy would lead to the return of pre-revolutionary
social and political elites (Pearson, 228).
 Nasser used his position to organize strikes and
demonstrations for the revolution supported by
peasants and city workers who wanted strong
governments (Pearson, 228).
NASSER’S STEPS TO POWER


Step 3- Response to attempted assassination
 October 1954- Muslim brotherhood tries to kill Nasser
(Pearson, 228).
 700 Muslim brothers are arrested, 8 sentenced to
death and six of them executed with much cruelty
(Pearson, 228).
 Naguib is removed after the Muslim brotherhood
attempted to kill Nasser.
Step 4- The Presidency
 In January 1955, Nasser appointed presidency by RCC
Download
Related flashcards

James Bond books

50 cards

Soviet spies

27 cards

Create Flashcards