Exploration & Expansion

Exploration & Expansion
Voyages of Discovery
Ch 16 Sec 1 Pages 469-475
Mr. Harrington
Crash Course
• exploration and expnasion crash course Bing Videos
Write these question and answers at
the top of your guided notes
• Why do you think Europeans wanted to
• At this time who controlled most of the
trade in Europe?
What you will learn
• In the 1400’s and 1500’s European
explorers= inspired by greed, curiosity, and
the desire for glory and aided by new
technologies- sailed to previously unknown
Reading Focus
1. What were the foundations upon which the Age of
Exploration was built?
2. What discoveries were made by explorers from Portugal
and Spain?
3. What drove explorers from the rest of Europe
Voyages to Discovery
What caused the Age of Exploration?
1. Renaissance = spirit of discovery
Fame an Glory
Spread Religion
2. Search for wealth
People want to find a faster way to
India to get trade good
Looking for Spices, Silk, Perfume
3. Advances in Technology
Three G’s: Gold, God, & Glory
New Technology
• Explorers needed to
calculate their
location with a…
• Compass
• Chinese Invention
• Astrolabe
• Uses Star and sun
in relation to the
• Developed by
Muslim Empires
New Technology Cont…
• Explorers needed a ship that can hold large
cargos and withstand heavy waves…
• Caravel- was a light, fast sailing ship
• Steered with rudder
• Triangular Sails
• Equipped with cannons
What’s Happening
What were the foundations upon which the Age of
Exploration was built?
What changes in in technology helped improve navigation?
A spirit of discovery and innovation during the renaissance,
technology borrowed from other cultures
Compass to determine direction, astrolobe that used the stars and
the sun in relation to the horizon, New type of ship called the
What do you think was the main motive that drove the age
of exploration?
Routes to India
• Sail east around Africa
• Gain wealth by cutting out the middle man (Italy)
• (New Idea) Sail west…Opps New World
• Curiosity- Writing like Marco Polo Intrigued
Portuguese Explorers
1st Country to launch large scale voyages of
Portugal’s Kings were patrons of the explorers…
King Henry the Navigator- ultimate goal was to find a
water route around Africa to India.
Brought together all sailors, mapmakers and astronomers and
other interested in navigation
Sent expeditions South to explore Western Coast of Africa
Bartolomeu Dias (map on next slide)
First European to attempt to sail around the southern tip of
Africa “Cape of Good Hope”
Portuguese Explorers Cont…
2. Vasco de Gama
• First to make it
to Clicut, India
and back to
Portuguese Explorers Cont…
3. Pedro Cabral
• Second trip to
• Sailed to Brazil
and Indonesia!
• Lucrative trading
• Portugal would
become the
powerful country
in the world
What’s Happening?
• What discoveries were made by Portuguese and
Spanish Explorers?
Learned about Africa, Found sea route to India,
landed in the Americas, Circumnavigated the globe
• Why did Portugal turn towards the Atlantic rather
than the Mediterranean Sea for exploration?
Portugal borders the Atlantic instead of the
Mediterranean sea
• What was Prince Henry’s reason for bringing
together people interested in navigation?
To raise his sailors chances of success in exploring
the African Coast
Spanish Explorers
• King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
helped finance certain voyages!
1. Christopher Columbus (1492)
• Columbus sails west to get to
India…inventive idea but flawed
because the Americas are in the way!
• Sails to Caribbean Islands
• Finds “Indians” and he believes he found
new route to India!
Columbus’ Route
Spanish Explorers Cont..
2. Amerigo Vespucci
• First to realize that Columbus found
a “New World”, Americas named
after him.
Spanish Explorers Cont…
3. Vasco Nunez de
• Tried to find passage
at Isthmus of Panama.
• Spanish realize there’s
another ocean to cross
to get to India.
• First to reach Pacific
Ocean from New World
• Panama Canal
Spanish Explorers Cont…
4. Ferdinand Magellan
Sails west to sail
Circumnavigate- sail
completely around the
Left with 250 men, and
returns with only 18 (Minus
Magellan, he dies during
What's Happening?
• Which Nation financed Columbus’s Voyages?
• Why did Columbus believed he had reached
His figures about the size of the world were wrong;
he did not know the Americas lay across the Atlantic
• Why did mapmakers name America after
Amerigo Vespucci and Christopher Columbus?
Vespucci was the 1st to conclude the Americas were a
new land and not part of Asia
English Explorers
1. John Cabot, sailed to Canada
English Explorers Cont…
2. Sir Francis Drake, sailed to southern tip of
South America and stopped over in modern
day California.
#2 to circumnavigate the world.
English Explorers Cont…
3. Henry Hudson
Tried to find Northeast Passage, Shorter route to
Asia, but found ice instead. Not the last time
we’ll see Hudson.
French Explorers
• French
1. Jacques Cartier
(1534 – 1535)
• Sailed into the St.
Lawrence River
in Canada “New
France” or
• Fur Trade is very
Dutch Explorers
• Dutch
1. Henry Hudson (Again, but for different
• Explored Hudson Bay region, in search
of Northwest Passage
• The Ultimate goal of Early English,
Dutch, and French explorers was to find a
passage to Asia
Henry’s search for the Northeast
What’s Happening
• What drove explorers from the rest of Europe?
Desire for a shorter route to Asia, New trading
partners, Search for the Northwest Passage
• What other European nations undertook voyages
of exploration?
England, France, Netherlands
• What common goals did explorers from these
nation share?
Quicker passage to Asia Via Northwest Passage; And
through the Americas via Northeast Passage
Explorers find new ways to make
new routes…
Can’t Go Over It.
Can’t Go Under It.
Can’t Go Around It.
Got to Go Through It.
Making Contact!
• The beginning of conquest and colonies occurs
when explorers get off their ships in search of
riches and land to claim for country!
• Cortes (Aztec Empire)
• Pizarro (Inca Empire)
• 3 G’s: God, Gold, & Glory
GROG 16.1
Using your notes, fill in the interactive
graphic organizer by identifying the major
explorers that sailed for each country and the
areas they explored.
Bell Ringer 16.2
• Write a letter as though you were a
European explorer trying to convince a
monarch to fund your expedition. Your
letter should point out why you want to
• 5 Points- 10 sentence mininum
What you will learn
• The countries of Europe established colonies
in the lands they had discovered but, in some
cases, only after violently conquering the
native people who lived there.
Reading Focus
1. How did Spain build an empire in the Americas?
2. What kind of colony did the Portuguese establish in
3. What was life like in the French, Dutch, and English colonies
in the Americas?
Atlantic Explorations
The 3 countries we will examine
are Spain, Portugal, and England
Spain Builds and Empire
• Among the first countries to successfully
settle in the Americas was Spain, which
eventually conquered the two greatest
native empires of the Americas, the Aztecs
and Incas.
• Spain first
Settled in the
Spain first settles in the Caribbean
• Columbus was the 1st to arrive here looking for gold
• Greatly disappointed
• Introduced the Encomienda system
– Colonist were given land and natives to work the land
– In return they must teach the Native Christianity
– Proved to disastrous as native were treated horrendously
and overworked
– Natives had no resistance to new diseases, smallpox's,
tuberculosis, and measles
– Millions of natives would die
The First Spanish Conquests:
The Aztecs
Fernando Cortez
Montezuma II
Conquest of Mexico
• Hernan Cortez- Spanish conquistador
• Montezuma II- leader of Aztecs
– Montezuma was very powerful and ruled much
of Mexico, but was very unpopular with people
he ruled
– Cortez marched to
capital of Aztec empire
- Tenochtitlan, along
the way natives joined
him to defeat
Defeat of Aztecs
• Not only did Cortez outnumber the Aztecs
he had the advantages of metal weapons,
armor, guns, and horses
• Most fled in fear of the horses
• Disease would also kill thousand more
• Montezuma was killed and Cortez took
control of entire Aztec Empire
The Death of Montezuma II
Mexico Surrenders to Cortez
The First Spanish Conquests:
The Incas
Francisco Pizarro
Conquest of Peru
• Francisco Pizarro- Spanish conquistador
• Atahualpa- Inca Leader
– Pizarro heard of great wealth that could be found in
the Peru’s Incan Empire
– Upon his arrive he found Incans were dying of
disease and had just had a civil war.
– Atahualpa would give Pizarro much gold and silver,
but would kill him anyway
– Then head South the Capital, Cuzco, destroyed the
Incan Army
– Took over empire
Life in the Spanish Empire
• Spanish King chose viceroys to rule land
in Americas
• Economy was based on mining of gold
and silver
– For labor in both mines and on farms, the
Spanish drafted Native Americans.
– However, disease and mistreatment took a
toll on the native population, which dropped
by more than 90 percent from an estimated
50 million to only 4 million
Reform gone wrong
• Bartolome de Las Casas was appalled by
treatment of natives and called to protect
those who remained.
– Recommend that labors be replaced with
Slave labor from Africa.
• This would soon become a common practice
Slaves Working in a
Brazilian Sugar Mill
What’s Happening?
• How did Spain build an empire in the
– Introduced encomienda system, conquered
Aztecs and Incas empires, viceroys governed
the land
• What was the ecomienda system?
– System in which a colonist was given land
and Native Americans to work the land for him
Primary Source Doc
Read handout and answer questions on
Due Tomorrow
5 Points
Portugal in Brazil
• Brazil would only build a small empire in
the Americas due the Treaty of Tordesillas
• Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Atlantic in
half- undiscovered land to the East would
be Portugal’s and to the West would be
Portugal in Brazil
• The Treaty of Tordesillas left Spain only
with Brazil
• Brazil is comprised of dense jungles and
few colonist went there
Those that did set up huge farms and used
Natives as the labor force but then switch to
African Slaves
What’s Happening?
• What kind of colony (Industry) did the
Portuguese establish in Brazil? Why?
– Farming.. Heavy forest
• What land did the Treaty of Tordillas give to
– Everything East of am imaginary line in the
Atlantic..basically Brazil
• What do you think was the motive of the Spanish
in seeking to convert the Indians to Christianity?
New France
• Cartier claimed land and
had hope for a new
source of gold and silver.
Disappointed followed,
However they found
Abundance of fish and
valuable furs
New France
• Unlike Spain and Portugal
– Only a small amount of people came to this
wilderness colony- they were mostly traders
– Made friends with the natives and did not
enslave them
• Headed South in exploration down
– LaSalle would claim the Mississippi region for
France and called it Louisiana after King Louis
Dutch in America
• Dutch were more interested in Trade than
• Settled in New Netherland, aka NY state
– New Netherland was small, 4000 colonist
– Dutch has more profitable colonies throughout
world and did not focus on New Netherland
– Spice from Asia and other good not found in
English in America
• First colony was Jamestown 1607
– Hoped to find gold and silver
– But only found marshy swamp lands
– 80% died during their 1st winter
• Plymouth Massachusetts was 2nd colony
– Pilgrims left England due to religious
– English colonist treated the native Indians
with distrust and anger
British and French Conflict
• British colonists began to settle in French
– Tensions grew
– French and Indians went to war against the
British (French and Indian War)
• British win expanding their territory
– Cost to protect this land is put on the colonist
– Colonist revolt, resulting in the American
What’s Happening?
• What was life like (economically)in the French,
Dutch, and English colonies in the Americas?
– Based on trade, fishing and furs
• Why did leaders in France, England, and the
Netherlands' decide they could no longer ignore
the potential of the land to the west?
– They saw the riches Spain was getting from it
American colonies; they also hoped to find a western
route to Asia
GROG 16.2
Using your notes, fill in the graphic organizer
by detailing each country’s colonies: their
locations, the activities that took place, and
the colonists’ relations with Native
Americans. (5 Points)
Exploration and Expansion:
New Patterns of Trade
Chapter 16 Sec 3
Pages 482-487
Mr. Harrington
Bell Ringer
The opinions of Bartolomé de Las Casas
were influential in alerting Europeans to
the treatment of Native Americans.
Write a short paragraph (7 sentences
minimum) explaining what his opinions
were and how they affected attitudes in
What did you think?
What you will learn
The creation of colonies in the Americas and
elsewhere led to the exchange of new goods,
the establishment of new patterns of trade,
and new economic systems in Europe.
Reading Focus
1. How did exploration result in a new exchange of plants and
2. What was mercantilism, and how did it push the drive to
establish colonies?
3. How did global trade lead to the rise of capitalism in Europe
Trade emerges in the ‘New World’
The Columbian Exchange takes place.
Contact between the Native Americans and
colonists have led to the widespread exchange of
plants, animals, and disease.
The “Columbian Exchange”
Sweet Potatoes
Citrus Fruits
Whooping Cough
Effects of Columbian Exchange
Crops of Americas (corn/potatoes) become
staples in diets of Europeans and other parts
of the world
Tomatoes from Americas, become main part
of Italian cuisine
Corn helps China’s population grow
Brazilians cows and coffee would not have
been possible (Europe>Americas)
1/3 of the worlds food crops grown today
originated in America
What’s Happening?
1. How did exploration result in a new exchange of
plants and animals?
as contact increased between Europe and America, plants, animals
and disease traveled from one part of the world to another
What was the results of the Columbian Exchange?
New economic activities grew up and national cuisines changes:
diseases would wipe much of native population
If the Columbian exchanges had not taken place how
might the foods we eat be different?
Mercantilism = “Hands On Economy”
New type of economic policy
Basic Principles
1. Nation’s strength depends on its wealth measured in
silver and gold
1. A wealthy nation has the power to build a strong military to
protect and influence others
2. Fixed amount of wealth in world, and nation’s compete
for it
1. Lead to competition among nations for wealth
3. Balance of trade is important to gaining wealth
4. Countries should seek to limit imports and maximize
Mercantilism Cont…
Basic Principles Cont…
5. Countries should have its own source for raw
materials and precious metals to avoid
dependence on others. (oil in America)
6. Colonies exist only as a way for the mother
country to make profit
7. A country’s colonies should not trade with any
other countries.
What’s Happening
What was mercantilism, and how did it push the
drive to establish colonies?
System based on the ideas that a nation’s strength was
based on it wealth: colonies help provide this wealth.
How did the desire top create a favorable balance of
trade help lead to the establishment of colonies?
European powers wanted to establish colonies so they
could control source of raw materials and to provide new
markets for manufactured goods
Balance of Trade
Under Mercantilism, nations can gain wealth in two
Extract gold and silver from mines
It could sell more goods than it bought
• (Exports > Imports)
Balance of Trade- the difference in value between
what a nation imports and exports over a period of
How do you discourage people from buying other
countries goods? (a.k.a imports)
Balance of Trade Cont…
Creating favorable balances of trade
Place tariffs (tax) on imported goods = makes
imported goods more expensive
Finished goods (exports) sell for more than raw
People are discouraged from buying
Cloth is more expensive than raw wool.
Control overseas sources of raw materials
Economic Policy is bad for colonies
Mother Country gets all the benefits, but
the colonies have no say in economic
Leads to trouble!
• Limited trade!
– Only allowed to trade with
home country
- Could not manufacture own
Goods, only buy from home
• Colonies dislike!
Impact on Society
Businesses increase in number due to
growth of industry
Towns and cities grow
Wealthy merchant middle class grows
Columbian exchange impacts foods
What’s Happening
How did monarchs restrict economic activity
in their colonies to make sure that the
colonies only benefited the home country?
by forbidding them to sell raw materials to any
other nation but home nation; forcing them to buy
manufactured good only from home county; to
letting them manufacture goods themselves
What was the impact of colonization on
European societies?
Growth of cites and towns, new class of wealthier
merchants who wielded more power
The Rise of Capitalism
Capitalism- economic system in which
most businesses are privately owned.
Merchants begin to supply the colonies
with goods from Europe and bring Raw
materials to produce more goods.
Rising Prices
Price Revolution occurs (1470 – 1620)
1.# people are growing in Colonies
Demand for goods are increasing
As demand ^ prices ^
2.The is general a large supply of gold and money
(Money Supply)
As money in circulation ^ so does costs^
Inflation pushes prices higher in Europe
A New Business Organization
Joint-Stock Company
Businesses formed by groups of people
who jointly make an investment and share
in the profits and losses.
• Ex. British East India Company & Virginia
What’s Happening
1.. How did global trade lead to the rise
of capitalism in Europe?
It provided opportunities for individuals to
invest money and build wealth
What is Capitalism?
System in which most economic activity is
carried on by private individuals or
organizations in order to seek a profit
GROG 16.3
Using your notes, fill in the interactive
graphic organizer by recording three facts
about mercantilism and three facts about
capitalism, and by identifying one feature that
the two systems have in common. (5points)
Exploration and Expansion
The Atlantic Slave Trade
Chapter 16 Sec 4
Pages 488-491
Ms. Harrington
Write a short letter as though you were one
of the founders of a joint-stock company
trying to convince a friend to invest his or
her money in your venture. In your letter,
explain what you hope your company will
accomplish and why you feel it would be
beneficial to your friend to take part.
(5 Points)
What you will learn
Between the 1500s and the 1800s millions
of Africans were captured, shipped across
the Atlantic Ocean, and sold as slaves in the
Reading Focus
1. Where did the Atlantic slave trade originate?
2. How did slavery evolve in the American colonies?
3. What were the consequences of the slave trade?
Crash Course
The Atlantic Slave Trade: Crash Course
World History #24 - ZOCIAL.tv
The Atlantic Slave Trade
Origins of the Slave Trade
High demand for labor!
– Plantations- estates where cash crops such as
sugar or tobacco were grown on large scale.
Shortage of Labor (Why?)
– Planter had first used Native Americans as
workers, but European diseases had killed
millions of them.
Indentured servants were too expensive!
Triangular Trade
Triangular Trade- trading network lasting from the
1600’s to the 1800’s that carried goods and
enslaved people between Europe, the Americas,
and Africa.
Middle Passage
Middle Passage- the name for voyages that
brought enslaved Africans across the
Atlantic Ocean to North America and the
West Indies.
Middle Passage Ship
Statistics on Slave Ships
Journey: Lasts 3-6 weeks
10-20% of Africans died on voyage
At dock, families were broken at auctions.
– Adolescent Males between the ages of 18 – 25
were the most expensive
– Women were prized because they could
reproduce and add to their master’s wealth.
What’s Happening?
1.Where did the Atlantic slave trade originate?
– Along the a triangular route connecting traders in
Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
What was the Middle Passage?
– The 2nd leg of the triangular trade route, bring Africans
to America to be sold as slaves
What is a cash crop?
– A crop such as sugar or tobacco that was grown for sale
Slavery in the Colonies
Worked in:
Women performed domestic duties as
cooks or servants.
Slavery in the Colonies
Not all worked in fields
– Many were skilled craftsmen
• Carpenters, metalworkers
Has to meet own needs during short off work
– Cooking, mending clothes, tending to sick or injured
Owners often inflicted harsh physical or degrading
– Owners lived in fear
Fear of Slave REBELLION!
Slaves outnumbered owners
Many slave owners didn’t teach their slaves to
read, why?
– The church services usually only read from the New
Testament about the suffering of Christ, and avoided
the Old Testament about Moses and the Exodus.
There were stiff punishments for even the most
minor offenses.
Slave Resistance
Slowing work
Broke tools
– Cost owners $$
Slave Resistance
Coped with inhuman
treatment by:
– Keeping cultural traditions
– Turned to religion
– Destroyed farm equipment
– Attacked slaveholders
– Ran Away!
Effects of the Slave Trade
Atlantic Slave trade continues for 400 years
– 15 to 20 Million Africans shipped to Americas
The labor of African slaves helped build the
economies of the American colonies.
African Diaspora- the dispersal of people of
African descent throughout the Americas and
Western Europe due to the slave trade.
What’s Happening?
What were the consequences of the slave trade?
– Death or loss of freedom for millions, devastation of
African Societies
How many Africans were shipped against their
– 15-20 Million
What was one effect of the African Diaspora?
– The spread of African culture throughout Western
GROG 16.4
Write a short description of the Middle
Passage experienced by enslaved Africans.
Include in your description the conditions
slaves had to endure and the effects of the
passage on those slaves
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