Germans in Tanganyika • • • • • • • • Used both direct and indirect rule. At the coast they used direct rule. In the hinterland they used indirect rule, They divided Tanganyika into Provinces and 22 districts. Governor Provincial Administration. District Officers. Germans used harsh methods in ruling just like the British Indirect rule • Used chiefs to rule the people in organized kingdoms. • Used Arabs and Swahili as agents to rule –known as Akidas. • Akidas were cruel and were hated by the people due religious differences- Muslims. • Akidas had a lot of power and collected excess taxes and pocketed the difference. • Swahili was the language of administration German rule • Exploitative - introduced first cash crops such as coffee, sisal, cotton and peanuts. • Introduced plantations, • Introduced forced labor • Employed the use of military to enforce law and order Maji-Maji Rebellion • Causes • Lack of respect for Muslims- went to mosque with shoes and dogs. • removed traditional chiefs and put their own chiefs. • Over taxation by the Akidas. • Use of Corporal punishment. • Forced labor on the cotton plantations. majimaji • Started during the rule of the 3RD Governor –Julius von Soden • Started in 1905 at Matumbi hills led by a prophet of the god Bokero called Kinjikitile Ngwale had a message from god to free his people using water from river Rufiji that would be bulletproof • It was a mass rebellion and spread to other parts of Tanganyika. • People went to Ngarambe to be sprinkled with water and took up arms to fight the Germans. “Unamaji call” • The rebellion thus took a religious form and created mass unity • It was one of the most serious rebellions in Africa due to its solidarity of entire country Majimaji • Maji did not work but people still went for more t water and took up arms. • It lasted for 2 years , ended in 1907 ,many people • were killed approximately 75,000 people died. Many • • Germans were killed they had to call reinforcement from West Africa and Germany that was expensive • Crops were destroyed the Africans uprooted all the cotton plantations. • Railways destroyed and administration buildings and shops burnt. • Germans and British in Kenya were shaken never have • Africans rebelled in mass like maji maji in the continent. • Maji maji proved that a united front against invaders was possible. Results • Forced Germans to change their policy. • New Governor –Albrecht von Rechenberg • Introduced new economic policy which benefited Africans • Stopped forcing Africans to grow cash crops, instead encouraged the growing of food crops. • Removal of forced labor, • Eradication of corporal punishment • Although settlers did not like the changes , but the Governor did not want another majimaji.