Incident Command Mini Intro

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INCIDENT COMMAND
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Incident Management System (IMS) and the
Incident commander
Risk management
Fire confinement and extinguishment
Size up
Accountability and PAR’s
PIAR’s – post incident analysis reviews
1. One person in command
• IC’s may change, but always, only ONE person in
charge
2. Ensures that a strong command is visible
3. Establishes an effective organization
4. Provides a system for processing information
• IC, even at a simple house fire, can be overloaded
with information
5. Allows for an orderly Transfer of Command
6. Ensures the maximum level of firefighter safety
• accountability
What is the primary responsibility of the IC?
1. To ensure that the
Tactical Priorities are met.
1. Rescue
2. Stabilize the scene i.e. extinguishment etc.
3. Property Conservation
4. Firefighter Safety – ongoing throughout the incident
What does the IC have to do on arrival & while on scene?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Assume command and announce it!!!
Do a quick size-up
Set up a Command Post and announce it!!!
Initiate and control communications
Determine strategy and develop the Action Plan
• assign companies
6. Develop an effective Incident Management organization
7. Provide the Tactical Priorities
8. Provide continuity in Transfer and Termination of
Command
It is critical to understand the use and importance of
“Benchmarks” in the Incident Management System. We
may accomplish the tactical priorities out of order but that
doesn’t change the way we rank their importance. As a
result, the following benchmarks are always reported in the
following order:
•
Primary Search – All Clear
•
Under Control (meaning, fire)
•
Secondary Search – All Clear
•
Loss Stopped (meaning, no more damage)
Whatever the incident, there are always
3 levels of command…
1. Strategic – the big plan
2. Tactical – operations
3. Task – performance
At the Strategic level, there are 3 terms that are indicative
of the IC’s overall approach to the incident. They are…
Offensive –
Aggressive, usually interior, fire attack that is intended to stop
the fire at its current location
Defensive –
Exterior fire attack with emphasis on exposure protection. The
commitment of a fire department’s resources to protect exposures when the fire
has progressed to a point where an offensive attack is not effective.
Marginal –
Many times offensive/defensive conditions are clear cut and
Command can quickly determine the appropriate strategy. In other cases, the
situation is MARGINAL and Command must initiate an offensive interior attack,
while setting up defensive positions on the exterior.
2 Story Detached
Dwelling
Pump 3
Garage
Pump 1
Rescue 1
Pump 2
D/Chief
Chief
Strategic Level – Incident Commander….
Develop Action Plan: determine strategy & overall incident
objectives; set priorities; obtain & assign resources; predict
outcomes and planning; assign specific objectives to the
Tactical Level
2 Story Detached
Dwelling
Pump 3
Garage
Pump 1
Rescue 1
Pump 2
D/Chief
Chief
Tactical Level – Captain….
Direct activities toward specific objectives: responsible for
geographic “areas” or functions; has responsibility & authority
to meet strategic goals
2 Story Detached
Dwelling
Pump 3
Garage
Pump 1
Rescue 1
Pump 2
D/Chief
Chief
Task Level – firefighters….
Individual companies – “where the rubber meets the road”:
usually commanded by a company Officer; goal is to
accomplish tactical objectives
Any Questions to this Point???
What does the term “sectoring” mean to you?
Why would we use sectoring and what are the
types?
Types:
Geographical
Function
Often used in conjunction with locations
around a structure. Can be termed either:
Alfa – Bravo – Charlie – Delta
or
South – West – North – East
Your thoughts on which method is best?
C (3)
B (2)
HOUSE
GARAGE
A (1)
STREET
D (4)
Identities are assigned based on the task.
Can be termed as follows:
Search & Rescue Team 1
Suppression Team 1
Ventilation 1
Water Supply
How does all of this look organizationally?
Should there not be differences between
small, medium and large scale incidents?
“Span of Control” criterion: once over 3-5 FF’s
In fact, there are differences…but, some
important similarities as well.
EXAMPLE #1
P1
P1
EXAMPLE #2
CO
CO
P2
R1
EXAMPLE #3
IC
DISTRICT CHIEF
CO’S
CO
CHIEF
DISTRICT CHIEF
VENTILATION SECTOR
R1
CO
P2
FIRE CONTROL SECTOR
P3
CO’S
A1
Usually the first arriving Officer stays in
Command until a transfer or the scene is
stabilized.
Question:
The first on-scene Officer has been in control
of an incident since the start. He/she is doing
a good job. A more senior Officer arrives at
the scene but chooses not to assume
Command because the first Officer is doing
well. Who is responsible for the fire?
What are your thoughts?
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•
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Vehicle designation – “P-1 Arrived”
Address – “20 Spruce St.”
Building type – “2-story residential brick structure”
Obvious conditions – “smoke showing at front”
Initial actions taken – “have established water
supply and beginning primary search”
Declaration of Strategy “commencing Offensive
Attack”
Obvious safety concerns – “heavy traffic, need police”
Assume command & give location – “Capt. Sparky
establishing Command, Alfa-Delta side”
Request or release resources – “Control, Spruce
Command. Dispatch EMS to this location”
There are 3 possible Command Modes upon arrival:
1. Nothing Showing Mode
2. Fast Attack Mode
3. Command Mode
… also known as “Investigative Mode”
What are some features of this mode?
•
Take crew, portable radio and check
out the situation
•
Stage additional arriving apparatus
“What you do in the first 5 minutes often determines what
you will be doing for the next 5 hours.” - Brunacini
What are some features of this mode?
•
Situations where immediate action is required
•
Retain radio and maintain Command
•
Should not last longer than a few minutes –
you cannot maintain Command from inside a
structure
What kind of incidents would require establishing
Command Mode immediately?
•
Situations that are obviously large from the
outset
•
IC establishes a Command Post immediately
•
A “Tactical Worksheet” is activated at this point!
Now let’s take a look at
Risk Management
There will always be risk in the job we do.
However, needless risk is unacceptable
as it both injures and kills firefighters.
Who is responsible for assessing risk at an emergency scene?
i. First arriving Officer
ii. All firefighters and Officers
iii. Ultimately, the IC
Who determines the level of acceptable risk?
•
•
The IC has to determine the level of acceptable
risk based on an on-going size-up
He must ensure that acceptable levels are NOT
exceeded
What is an “acceptable” level of risk?
•
Significant calculated risk to save a life
•
Some risk to save property
•
NO RISK to save something that can’t be saved
1. Does the size, location and size of the fire warrant an
offensive fire attack?
2. Do I have enough resources to carry out an offensive plan of
attack? (human, physical – i.e. equipment/apparatus)
3. Is there rescue to perform? (rescue risks higher acceptability
than suppression risks)
4. Should attack be delayed pending additional manpower? (If
the answer is yes then all activities must be limited to the
exterior)
1. Conduct a thorough size-up. (What are some ways to
do this?)
2. Determine strategic and tactical objectives. (What’s the
difference between “strategy” and “tactics?”
3. Determine initial attack. (Offensive or defensive)
4. Develop an Action Plan.
•
Driven by Risk Management
• IC must weigh the danger or risks against the
expected results
•
Contains Strategic and Tactical Objectives
•
Must be flexible and changeable based on changing
conditions
•
Must have identifiable benchmarks or objectives
Fire Confinement and
Extinguishment
The goal of the fire ground IC is ultimately to
put the fire out. This is not always possible in
the short term. Hose lines could be used in a
“holding pattern.” There IS a difference
between Confinement and Extinguishment.
Question: What IS this difference?
1.
CONFINE OR EXTINGUISH?
2.
SIZE-UP CONSIDERATIONS
- WHERE IS IT GOING?
- WHO OR WHAT IS IN THE WAY?
- TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
- REQUIRED FLOW?
UNDER CONTROL
- LOSS STOPPED
-
“BENCHMARKS”
WHERE?
WHAT?
HOW?
•
Depends on function… confinement or
extinguishment
•
Initial line between fire and victims
•
Frontal assault only when no other option is possible
•
Use with second line to push fire back to place of
origin
Benchmarks
“Under Control”
“Loss Stopped”
Size Up and Exposure
Protection
Initial size-ups must be viewed as just that:
initial.
It must be an on-going process. Among the
important decisions to be made relates to
protection from exposures. More troops may
be needed!
Question: When does size-up begin?
Begins on Receipt of Alarm
1. Time of day or night
2. Weather – wind conditions, humidity etc.
3. Type of occupancy
4. Nature of the emergency i.e. working fire?
5. Other apparatus responding
6. Reports from citizens
En Route
1. Pre-plan factors
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Size & type of building
Building construction including roof
Water supply
Company assignments
Fire protection system connections
Access points
Normal building population
Fire protection equipment i.e. standpipe etc.
Fire flow required
On Arrival
1. Fire Ground Situational Factors
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Location, stage and extent of fire
Colour of smoke
Obstructions to operations
Apparatus on scene
People trapped?
Question: What other factors could there be?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
SIZE-UP
CALL FOR HELP
LIFE SAFETY - RESCUE
CONFINEMENT - EXPOSURES
EXTINGUISHMENT
VENTILATION
SALVAGE
OVERHAUL
WHAT?
HOW?
WHERE
?
1.
IS SUPPORT NEEDED?
2.
OUTSIDE COLLAPSE ZONE?
3.
FIRE FLOW AVAILABE?
4.
HOSE AND APPLIANCES REQUIRED?
5.
WHAT COORDINATION WITH OTHER TACTICS IS
NEEDED?
6.
SAFETY CONCERNS?
WHERE?
WHAT?
HOW?
Accountability and
Personnel Accountability
Reports (PAR’s)
Its primary purpose is FIREFIGHTER SAFETY!
The IC is ultimately responsible for safety. Some
departments have ISO’s and safety MUST be part
of OG’s. All FF’s and Officers must comply with
safety guidelines.
Accountability Officer
• Keeps track of who is at the scene
• Collect first Tag
• Will sometimes be Entry Control
Officer as well
Entry Control Officer
• Records when FF’s enter the danger
zone
• Generally uses a pre-fabricated Entry
Control Board
• Reports to the IC and gives updates or
notifies the IC of any unaccounted for
FF’s
The purpose is to assist the IC in a person
Inventory Control.
There are 8 appropriate times to call for a PAR…
1. When “Benchmarks” have been achieved
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“All Clear” and “Under Control”
Easy reminder for IC
Good delineation of the event
2. After twenty and forty minutes
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30 and 60 minute bottles
Some time to begin rescue if a
firefighter is missing
Note: Some departments require the initial
attack crew entering a building to radio to the IC
or their Dispatch that they are “ON AIR” when
they turn their cylinders on. This is to provide the
IC and the Dispatch the reminder that the “clock
is now ticking” in the countdown to a PAR.
3. When command is Passed or Transferred

This allows the new IC to be
confident that all crews are
accounted for
4. When there is a significant change
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Building collapse
Flashover
Backdraft
Rapid smoke build-up
Any other important event
5. After an ordered evacuation
6. Anytime Personnel go Missing
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Activated PASS alarm
From radio report
From other source
Prior to activating RIT
7. After the rescue of a firefighter who was
previously missing

This is a good time to “take stock”
8. After a major change of strategy

It’s crucial to know everyone is out
of the building prior to initiating
significant defensive tactics that
affect the internal environment
PIAR’s
Post Incident Analysis
Reviews
“We need to learn from each
experience”
The purpose is to improve performance and
safety!
Let’s take a closer look at what P.I.A.R.
is all about…
Why do you do Post Incident Analysis?
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
To give credit where credit is due
To point out concerns to the team
To analyze tactics – good and bad
It’s a good place for “soft intervention”
To obtain feedback from all those involved
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Above all: TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE!
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Who conducts a Post Incident Analysis?
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Chief
IC
Safety Officer
Outside Facilitator
When do you do a Post Incident Analysis?
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As soon as possible after the incident

Time clouds the memory
This is a good reason for all personnel to
take notes
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Everyone involved in the incident, if possible…
This may include…
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IC
Firefighters
Police
EMS
Dispatch
etc…
As long as practicable to ensure performance is
improved.
(The first few PIAR’s a department does may
take a little longer than subsequent PIAR’s.)
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People may be reluctant at first
Remind participants that questions should
be posed in a non-accusational manner
It may depend on the “culture” of the
department
The purpose of a PIAR is to
IMPROVE PERFORMANCE and
NOTHING ELSE!
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Incident Management System (IMS)
and the Incident Commander
Risk Management
Fire Confinement
Size Up
Accountability
PIAR
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