URBAN LANDUSE MODELS - Clydebank High School

Models of Urban Structure
A model is a simplified version of
what occurs in real life.
 Urban models show common
characteristics of cities.
 Urban Models are based on
The Burgess Land use Model
– Concentric Zones 1924
Major shops and Offices
 The most accessible point of the city
 The original core of the city
 Very low residential population.
Zone of transition
Made up of old housing and factories.
 Stages of deterioration and
 Areas of low class housing
 Terraced or tenements
 Over crowded
 Close to industry
Medium class residential
Housing built during inter war period.
Population density is lower than
previous zone.
High Class Residential
or Modern Suburbia
Houses mainly semi detached or
 Well planned
 Lots of open space
 Good transport links
 Lower population density
Burgess Model Assumptions
City built on a flat surface.
 Transport easy in all directions.
 Land value highest in city centre
 Oldest buildings close to city centre
 Poorer classes have to live near work
and city centre.
But can this really happen?
Zones are never that clearly defined.
 Zones usually have a mix of land uses
 Cities rarely on large flat plains.
 No edge of city developments.
 Oldest housing not always found in
The Sector Model Based on
Transport Routes.
Basic Assumptions
Wealthy people choose to live near
transport links.
They can afford cars so can live further
from industry.
Similar land uses attract similar land
uses.This means certain functions are
located in certain areas.
But certain functions also repel each other.
Areas of low cost housing do not
occur beside main roads as predicted.
 Assumes no planning controls.
 Does not take account of suburbs.
The Multiple Nuclei Model
The central business district will often be
found near the original retail area of the
Warehousing and light industrial areas will
develop adjacent to the CBD and along
transport links such as railways and roads.
Heavy industry will locate on the outskirts
of towns or where the outskirts were when
the development took place, since growth
of the urban area may have overrun this
area by now.
Residential areas will be found in the
remaining space.
The model is not based on any particular
 It has a very weak spatial rule – in that it
doesn’t provide a clear picture.
Manns Compromise Model
Elements of both Burgess and Hoyt models.
 SW wind blows smoke and pollution
towards East.
 Wealthy choose to live in pleasant
unpolluted areas.
Does not include inner city renewal.
 Based on limited study of only three cities –
not entirely accurate.