7_Behaviour(II) 動物福利的行為學

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Module 7
模組7
Behavioural measures of
animal welfare (2)
動物福利的行為評估(2)
This module will enable you to
此模組將使你能夠
• Recognise and interpret behavioural
indicators of animal welfare辨認動物福利的
各項行為指標,並解釋其背後意義;
• Identify possible causes of abnormal
behaviour識別動物展現不正常行為的各種可能
原因
Introduction介紹
• Module 6
– How behavioural indicators are used in research,
to identify how animals feel about changes and
choices within their environment
模組六說明行為學指標是如何被動物福利學使用,
以認定動物在其環境中如何感受其變化及選擇
• Today’s session
– How you can use an animal’s behaviour to learn
about the animal’s welfare
本模組將探討如何利用行為學之指標去了解動物福利之狀況
Behavioural indicators
- the ‘normal’ animal
正常行為之指標
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•
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Alertness 警覺
Curiosity 好奇
Range of activities 行動多樣性
Interaction with other members of the
herd/flock 同群動物彼此之互動
Interaction with humans/Aversion to
humans 與人類之互動/逃避人類
Play 玩耍
The ‘normal’ animal: Alertness
正常動物:警覺
The ‘normal’ animal: Curiosity
正常動物:好奇
The ‘normal’ animal: Range of
activities正常動物:多樣性之行為模式
The ‘normal’ animal: Interaction with
other members of group/herd/flock
正常動物:與同窩/群動物之互動
The ‘normal’ animal:
Interaction with humans
正常動物:與人類之互動
The ‘normal’ animal: Play
正常動物:玩耍
The ‘normal’ animal: Influence of species,
age, breed and sex正常動物行為:受到品種、
年齡、品系、與性別之影響
The experienced stockperson
有經驗的動物管理員
Behavioural indicators of poor welfare
負面動物福利的行為指標
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•
•
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Limited range of activity受限的行為能力
Panting and/or sweating 喘氣和/或出汗
Huddling or shivering 擠在一起或發抖
Depression 抑鬱
Abnormal fear or aggression towards humans
對人不正常的恐懼或示威
•
Stereotypies and other behavioural
abnormalities 刻板性或其他不正常的行為
1a) Limited range of activity
1a)受限的行為能力
May affect individuals or a whole group, and
includes: 會影響個體或整群動物,包含:
1. Restricted space in intensive farming systems
or laboratory housing 空間受限的集約式農場或實
驗動物舍
2. Close tethering 緊束之頸鍊
3. Lameness 跛行
4. Increased lying time (due to lameness, disease,
obesity or weakness) 增加躺臥的時間(因為跛行、
疾病、肥胖、或體弱)
1b) Limited range of activity due to
confined housing1b) 因環境受制導致受限的行為能
力
1c) Limited range of activity due to close
tethering 1c ) 因緊栓鍊導致受限的行為能力
1d) Limited range of activity due to
lameness 1d)因跛足導致受限的行為能力
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Lame animals suffer as: 跛足是痛苦的,因為:
They are in pain 痛
They do not interact normally with other herd
members 與其他同籠動物無正常互動
They are often thin because they cannot move easily
to feed 因為不易行動進食故瘦
They may suffer urine scalding or develop sores from
lying down for long periods 長時間被尿成份造成化學
燙傷,或因為長期躺臥造成褥瘡
1e) Increased lying time due to weakness,
disease, obesity
1e)因衰弱,疾病,肥胖增加躺臥的時間
•
Weakness衰弱
– Chronic starvation慢性飢餓
– Rapid muscle growth in broilers and
turkeys肉雞與火雞肌肉的迅速成長
• Many diseases cause exhaustion or collapse,
if they are not treated很多疾病會造成身體的崩潰
• Obesity is an important issue among pet
animals肥胖是寵物的重要議題
2. Panting and/or sweating
2呼吸急促與盜汗
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•
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Heat stress熱緊迫
Fever發燒
Overcrowding密飼
Fear恐懼
Identify the cause確認發生之原因
– ambient temperature?環境周遭的溫度
– stocking density?飼養密度
– signs of disease?疾病的徵兆
3. Huddling or shivering
3. 擠在一起發抖
• Cold 冷
– Does not usually affect most animals except in extreme
environments 除非極冷,通常動物不會受影響。
– Often affects very young animals 通常會影響幼年動物
– More likely where animals are wet and chilled by wind
較可能的情況是當動物身體潮濕且有寒風時
– More likely if young animals have not been fed較可能的
情況是幼年動物沒有餵食
• Fear 恐懼
4. Depression 4. 鬱抑
5. Abnormal fear or aggression towards
humans 5.對人類不正常的恐懼或示威
‘Normal’ depends upon species, breed and
previous contact with humans 正常行為決定於:(1)
物種; (2)品系; (3)過去與人類相處的經驗。
Animals learn from experience: abnormal fear or
aggression may indicate previous cruelty動物從經
驗學習:不正常的恐懼或示威行為表示過去被虐待。
5. Abnormal fear or aggression towards
humans: Cows
5.對人類不正常的恐懼或示威:乳牛
Dairy cows who are frequently
handled should not be afraid of
people 乳牛經常與人接觸不
應該怕人
5. Abnormal fear or aggression towards
humans: Pigs 5.對人類不正常的恐懼或示威:豬
• Negative interactions for 15 - 30 seconds daily cause
pigs to be less willing to approach stationary humans
每天有15-30秒的時間與豬有負面互動,豬就不願意接
近動物管理員
• Positive interactions cause pigs to be more willing to
approach stationary humans對豬正面的互動會使豬願
意接近動物管理員
Time to interaction with stockperson
和管理員互動的時間 (Gonyou et al., 1986)
Time to interact (s)
互動所需時間
After negative
interaction負面的
互動後
After no
interaction沒有互
動
After positive
interaction正面互
動後
0
50
100
150
6. Stereotypies and other behavioural
abnormalities 6.刻板性行為與其他不正常的行為
(Mason & Rushen 2006)
Conclusions/Summary結論/摘要
• The behaviour of animals can tell us a great
deal about their welfare動物的行為舉止可以為我
們提供很多有關動物福利的資料
• If animal behaviour indicates poor welfare,
we need to investigate its causes and then
identify potential solutions如果動物的行為表示福
利差劣,我們就要調查原因,然後找出可行解決方案
Further Reading進修書目
• GONYOU HW, HEMSWORTH PH, BARNETT JL 1986.
Effects of frequent interactions with humans on growing
pigs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci 16: 269-278
• MASON G & RUSHEN J (Eds). 2006 Stereotypic Animal
Behaviour, 2nd edition: Fundamentals and Applications
to Welfare. CABI, Wallingford, UK
• WEBSTER J 1994 Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards
Eden. Blackwell Science, Oxford
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