Rise of Rome

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Rise of
Rome
Copyright © Clara Kim 2007. All rights reserved.
The Beginning
• According
to legend,
Rome was
founded
by
Romulus
and Remus
(twin
brothers)
In the Beginning…
• Ancient Rome began
as a group of villages
along the Tiber River
in what is now Italy.
• Around 750 B.C.
these villages united
to form the city of
Rome.
• Rome was built on seven rolling hills at a
curve on the Tiber River
– This strategic location in the middle of the
Italian Peninsula gave Rome fertile soil.
Control of Rome
• In the beginning 3 groups inhabited
Rome:
2. Greeks
1. Latins
3. Etruscans
Greek Influence
• Greeks established 50 colonies
(settlements) in Italy
• These cities became busy with trade
• Brought Italy and Rome in closer
contact with Greece
• Greeks taught Romans how to grow
grapes and olives
The Etruscans
• Native to
Northern Italy
• They were
skilled
metalworkers
and engineers
• Strongly
influenced
Roman
civilization
(ee TRUS kanz)
Formation of Roman Republic
• For more than 200 years,
kings ruled Rome.
• In 509 B.C. a group of patricians drove out
the last Etruscan ruler and proclaimed
Rome an independent republic (a form of
government in which power resides in the
people, and the government is ruled by
elected leaders run according to law).
Patricians & Plebeians
• In the beginning most of
the people elected to the
Senate were patricians.
• Patricians controlled the
law since they were the
only citizens allowed to
be judges.
• Plebeians had the right
to vote, but could not hold
public office until 287
B.C, when they gained
equality with patricians.
Government in Rome
• Romans replaced their monarchy
with elected officials called consuls.
• Two Consuls were elected from the
Senate witch was made up of the
Roman upper class.
• These two officials ruled at the same
time for a year’s term.
• They each had full power with the
right to veto the other’s actions.
Roman Army
• Romans were constantly at war.
• Rival city-states tried to take advantage of Rome
by invading their territory.
• Roman forces conquered their neighbors
overtime.
• Rome made treaties with the conquered towns,
permitting them to operate independently in local
matters.
• In return these towns were expected to provide
troops for the Roman army in time of war.
• Resulting in endless sources of troops for Rome
to use as they made conquests throughout Italy.
Roman Expansion
• Under the leadership of
ambitious generals, Rome’s
highly trained soldiers took
over most of the land
surrounding the
Mediterranean.
• The ancient Romans called
the Mediterranean mare
nostrum, meaning “our sea”.
Roman Wars
• Were brutal and bloody.
• Roman soldiers made
slaves of the defeated
people.
• Roman allies started to
pay tribute money to
show their loyalty.
Roman Power
• Maintained power by colonization.
• Roman citizens were planted throughout the
countryside to establish the Roman presence.
• Romans began building an extensive system of
roads and bridges.
• Conquered lands were now connected to Rome.
• The Roman army and Roman traders could
move anywhere with ease and speed.
Romans built over 53,000 miles of roads to connect
every part of their empire. The roads were mostly built
by the army and were all done by hand.
The Punic Wars
• Carthage was a city-state on
the northern coast of Africa.
Carthage was a huge trading
empire.
• Rome was gaining power in
the Mediterranean.
Carthage was also gaining
power in the Mediterranean.
Rome did not want Carthage
to control trade. Rome
fought three wars with
Carthage called the Punic
Wars.
After the Punic Wars
• Increasing wealth and expanding
empire brought many problems
• The most serious problem was
the widening gap between the
rich and the poor.
1
• Thousands of slaves were
captured and made to work on
Latifundias
estates.
[lat-uh-fuhn-dee-uh m]
= huge
2
• Thousands of Soldiers returned from
war without jobs or homes.
• They moved to cities like Rome to
find work.
• They became part of the poor class.
Two Brothers
• Tiberius and Gracchus
tried to help Rome’s
poor by proposing to:
– Give land to the poor
– Limit the size of estates
(latifundias)
• The senators felt
threatened and the two
brothers were murdered
3
• Rich Romans
became corrupt
with money and
luxury and
tensions between
the rich and the
poor caused a
civil war!
Julius Caesar
• Eventually an
ambitious
and daring
leader
emerged to
bring order to
Rome
Triumvirate
• The First Triumvirate = Julius Caesar,
Crassus and Pompey
• Triumvirate = a group of three leaders
working together in government
• He conquered all of Gaul in France
Caesar’s Reforms
• He became the
absolute ruler of Rome
= he had total power.
• He expanded the
Senate by adding his
friends
• Created jobs for the
poor and expanded
land
• Raised pay for soldiers
Caesar’s Assassination
Why did Julius Caesar have enemies
among the rich and powerful?
• military victories = very popular with the Romans.
• His soldiers were very loyal to their leader so Senate
was afraid of his popularity and power.
• Pompey and some senators tried to take over power
and Caesar defeated Pompey.
• After the civil war, Caesar was given more power.
• Senators didn't trust anyone who wanted to be a
dictator and take their power. They thought he was
trying to end the Republic.
• Caesar tried to get control of the senate by adding
more senators who were loyal to him. Therefore, the
senators felt their power was slipping even further.
• He granted citizenship to many Greeks. This made
many Roman citizens angry.
The assassination led to another civil war
led by Caesar’s adopted nephew Octavian &
his best general, Marc Antony
End of the Republic & Rise of the Empire
• Caesar’s death changed Rome:
– People no longer trusted the Senate
to rule Rome & the Roman Republic came to an
end & the empire began
The Rise of the Roman Empire
Octavian emerged as the
unchallenged leader of Rome,
was given the title Augustus
(“Exalted One”), & became
Rome’s first emperor
Under Augustus, Rome was
ruled as an empire; the Senate
still met but the emperor had
all the real power
The Pax Romana
Augustus’ 41 year reign marked the beginning of
a 207-year era of peace, wealth, & expansion
known as the Pax Romana (“the Roman Peace”)
from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D.
Pax Romana
During the Pax Romana, the
empire expanded to its height &
brought great wealth to Rome
The Pax Romana became the “golden age” of
Rome as emperors like Augustus built roads &
a merit-based bureaucracy to rule the empire
Roman aqueducts brought water to cities
The Age of Augustus
(Imperial Rome)
A Vast and Powerful Empire
• Octavian the adopted son of
Julius Caesar accepts the
title Augustus (exalted one)
• During his rule, Rome
reaches its peak in power
and reaches a time of great
peace
• From 27 B.C. to 180 A.D
there will be a period of 207
years of peace called the
Pax Romana
Economy during Pax Romana
• Agriculture is the most
important industry of the
Roman empire
• Whole empire used uniform
silver coin called a denarius
which made trade easier
• Had a huge network of
roads that connected all the
way to Persia and Russia
• Created prosperity and
stability
Government of Pax Romana
• Augustus was a great
emperor who:
– stabilized the frontier
– glorified Rome with splendid
public buildings
– Set up a civil service
• A civil service paid workers
from the Plebeian class to:
– Manage grain supply
– Collect taxes
– Manage a postal system
• Government was very stable
Roman architects used new styles like
domes & concrete to beautify cities
Emperors built arenas & used chariot races,
gladiator events, & theater to entertain the
poor
The Roman
Emperor Succession
• Peace and prosperity
depended on orderly
transfer of power
• There was no written law
for how to transfer the
emperor’s power when he
died
Conclusions
• Rome expanded from a city, to a
republic, to an empire
– The era of the Roman Republic
introduced representative
democracy
– The era of the Roman Empire
sparked the Pax Romana & the
“golden age” of Roman
innovation & culture
Closure Activity
• Would you rather live during the Roman
Republic or the Empire?
– Discuss for 2 minutes with your table partner
– Take out a sheet of paper, put your name on
it, title it “Republic vs Empire”– You will turn
this in.
– Write down where you would live and give at
least 3 reasons why
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