End of the War Lincoln had searched for a general who could lead the Union to victory. Finally, he appointed Ulysses S. Grant. After capturing Vicksburg, Grant continued to win battles in the West. In 1864, Lincoln appointed him commander of Union Forces. Grant and other Union generals began to wage total war against the South. In total war, civilians as well as soldiers are affected. The Union army waged total war by destroying food and equipment that might be useful to the enemy. Civilians in the South suffered the same hunger and hardships that the soldiers did. Grant sent General Philip Sheridan to destroy much of the farmland used by the South to grow food. He and his troops attacked the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. This was the breadbasket of the South. Grant knew that the South could not fight for long if the soldiers did not have food. He also knew that discontent would grow among civilians without food, and support for the war would begin to disappear. Leave nothing to invite the enemy to return. Destroy whatever cannot be consumed. Let the valley be left so that crows flying over it will have to carry their rations along with them. ~Ulysses S. Grant Property, livestock, and at times even their homes, were confiscated for use by the Union army. Everyday commodities soon became luxuries. Shoes, coffee, sugar, clothing, firewood, salt, flour, and even medicine were almost impossible to get. In late 1864, after Sheridan had burned the Valley, hunger became a way of life. Many sought shelter in the burned, wrecked shells of buildings. The few goods that were available carried price tags that only a few could afford. Confederate money became worthless and only gold or "greenbacks" were accepted. Sherman’s March to the Sea Grant ordered General William Tecumseh Sherman to capture Atlanta, Georgia. He then had to march with his troops to the Atlantic Ocean and capture Savannah, Georgia. Like Sheridan, Sherman was ordered to destroy everything useful in his path. They burned homes, killed livestock, destroyed fields, and even ripped up railroad tracks, lighting fires under them to heat the metal and bending them around trees. These became known as Sherman’s neckties. BATTLE ATLANTA DATE JULY 1864 WINNER UNION MAY RICHMOND / 1864 UNION APPOMATTOX TO COURTHOUSE APRIL 1865 PEOPLE INVOLVED / DETAILS SIGNIFICANCE Union - Sherman Sherman's troops attacked the city of Atlanta. Confederates suffered 15,000 casualties. Sherman laid siege to the city. When Atlanta surrendered in September, it helped Lincoln get re-elected. Union - Grant Confederacy Lee Grant laid siege to the city for 9 months until Lee surrendered Confederate capital fell War was over GOAL # 3 THE DICTATOR, OR PETERSBURG EXPRESS THE DICTATOR, OR PETERSBURG EXPRESS Atlanta Train Depot BEFORE Atlanta Train Depot AFTER After the surrender of General Lee at Appomattox Courthouse, Grant forbade his men from celebrating. He ordered his men to be silent, saying, “The war is over. The rebels are our countrymen again.” More than 360,000 Union soldiers and 250,000 Confederate soldiers lost their lives during the Civil War. No war has ever resulted in more American deaths. As a result, feelings of bitterness and animosity remained strong with both sides. Southerners had lost their battle for independence. Their way of life was forcibly changed. The Union armies had destroyed much of their land and many of their homes. Recovery would not be easy. The Civil War was a major turning point in American history. The Union was secure, but state’s rights had been dealt a terrible blow.