total war

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End of the War
Lincoln had searched
for a general who could
lead the Union to
victory. Finally, he
appointed Ulysses S.
Grant. After capturing
Vicksburg, Grant
continued to win
battles in the West. In
1864, Lincoln
appointed him
commander of Union
Forces.
Grant and other Union generals began to
wage total war against the South. In total
war, civilians as well as soldiers are affected.
The Union army waged total war by
destroying food and equipment that might
be useful to the enemy. Civilians in the
South suffered the same hunger and
hardships that the soldiers did.
Grant sent General Philip
Sheridan to destroy much of
the farmland used by the
South to grow food. He and
his troops attacked the
Shenandoah Valley in
Virginia. This was the
breadbasket of the South.
Grant knew that the South
could not fight for long if the
soldiers did not have food.
He also knew that discontent
would grow among civilians
without food, and support for
the war would begin to
disappear.
Leave nothing to invite the enemy
to return. Destroy whatever cannot
be consumed. Let the valley be
left so that crows flying over it will
have to carry their rations along
with them.
~Ulysses S. Grant
Property, livestock, and at times even their
homes, were confiscated for use by the Union
army. Everyday commodities soon became
luxuries. Shoes, coffee, sugar, clothing,
firewood, salt, flour, and even medicine were
almost impossible to get. In late 1864, after
Sheridan had burned the Valley, hunger
became a way of life. Many sought shelter in
the burned, wrecked shells of buildings. The
few goods that were available carried price
tags that only a few could afford. Confederate
money became worthless and only gold or
"greenbacks" were accepted.
Sherman’s March to the Sea
Grant ordered General
William Tecumseh Sherman to
capture Atlanta, Georgia. He
then had to march with his
troops to the Atlantic Ocean and
capture Savannah, Georgia.
Like Sheridan, Sherman was
ordered to destroy everything
useful in his path. They burned
homes, killed livestock,
destroyed fields, and even
ripped up railroad tracks,
lighting fires under them to heat
the metal and bending them
around trees. These became
known as Sherman’s neckties.
BATTLE
ATLANTA
DATE
JULY
1864
WINNER
UNION
MAY
RICHMOND /
1864
UNION
APPOMATTOX TO
COURTHOUSE
APRIL
1865
PEOPLE
INVOLVED /
DETAILS
SIGNIFICANCE
Union - Sherman
Sherman's
troops attacked
the city of Atlanta.
Confederates
suffered 15,000
casualties.
Sherman laid
siege to the city.
When Atlanta
surrendered in
September, it
helped Lincoln get
re-elected.
Union - Grant
Confederacy Lee
Grant laid siege
to the city for 9
months until Lee
surrendered
Confederate
capital fell
War was over
GOAL # 3
THE DICTATOR, OR PETERSBURG EXPRESS
THE DICTATOR, OR PETERSBURG EXPRESS
Atlanta Train Depot BEFORE
Atlanta Train Depot AFTER
After the surrender of General Lee at
Appomattox Courthouse, Grant forbade
his men from celebrating. He ordered
his men to be silent, saying, “The war is
over. The rebels are our countrymen
again.”
More than 360,000 Union soldiers and
250,000 Confederate soldiers lost their
lives during the Civil War. No war has ever
resulted in more American deaths. As a
result, feelings of bitterness and animosity
remained strong with both sides.
Southerners had lost their battle for
independence. Their way of life was
forcibly changed. The Union armies had
destroyed much of their land and many of
their homes. Recovery would not be easy.
The Civil War was a major
turning point in American
history. The Union was secure,
but state’s rights had been dealt
a terrible blow.
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