Age of Discovery

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The Age of Discovery
The Scientific Revolution
European Exploration & Expansion
The Scientific Revolution
Essential Questions:
What were the factors that contributed to the Scientific
Revolution?
How did Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo challenge
traditional thought?
What were some of the important scientific discoveries of
this period?
“Magic”
Alchemists – tried to use magic to change substances
• Lead to gold
Astrologers – believed the stars affected human events
Roger Bacon
Franciscan Monk
Studied at Oxford and Paris
Favored a system of scientific experimentation rather than
following traditional religious thought
Became known as Dr. Mirabilis or “wonderful teacher”
Renaissance encouraged:
Curiosity
Investigation
Discovery
Led to Scientific Revolution
Scientists formed conclusions based on
observation
New tools and instruments to observe and
measure
Instruments– barometer, microscope,
telescope, thermometer, air pump.
Astronomy, Physics, and Anatomy
Ptolemy– Roman astronomer
Geocentric theory- Planets revolve around the
earth
Copernicus – heliocentric theory
Planets revolve around sun
Kepler and Galileo
Kepler proved Copernicus’ theory
Galileo made improvements to telescope
Newton – laws of motion and gravity
Vesalius – studied anatomy and circulation
The Triumph of the New Science
Descartes
“I think, therefore I am.”
Great gains in mathematics, sciences, & philosophy
Believed in using only known facts to arrive at
conclusions
Francis Bacon
Believed scientific theories could be developed
through observation
Other scientific discoveries
Calculus – Newton and Liebnitz
Microscope – Leeuwenhoek (discovered bacteria)
Chemistry – Robert Boyle
The Foundations of European
Exploration
Essential Questions:
What are the technological advances that
made European exploration possible?
Describe the effect of the Commercial
Revolution.
What role did mercantilism play in the
colonies?
Improvements in Technology
Mapmaking
New world, Africa and Asia added to maps
Navigation
Development of compass
New ships
Traveled farther, faster, and under greater
variety of weather conditions
Economic Changes
Commercial Revolution
Standardization of money encouraged
international trade and banking
Joint – Stock Companies
• Companies that owners raised money for by selling
shares
• As company value went up, price of shares went up
 People could make money by sharing in other businesses
• Dividends paid to investors
Mercantilism
Balance of trade
To increase country’s wealth
• Receive more gold than paid to other nations
Tariff – import taxes
Subsidies
• Grants of money to create exportable goods
• Showed government support of domestic industry
The role of colonies
Colonies were not allowed to manufacture or import
goods
Could only create raw materials
Social Change
Curiosity and spirit of discovery
Hope of wealth or better way of life
Escape religious persecution or spread
religion
Voyages of Portugal and Spain
Essential Questions:
What did the early Portuguese explorers
accomplish?
How did the voyages of Christopher
Columbus influence the world?
Explain why the Atlantic slave trade
prospered.
Portugal’s First Explorers
Africa
Slave, gold, ivory trade
Africans participated in slaves trade
• Sold conquered tribes into slavery
Prince Henry – “The Navigator”
Found African trade route
Main goal was to find gold for Portugal
Inspired Portugal’s exploration
Dias and Vasco da Gama
Overseas trade route to India and East Indies
Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer, sailed for Spain
Studied Marco Polo and Ptolemy’s writings
Thought the fastest way to India was to sail west
First European to discover new world
Vikings discovered America in 1000 AD, but no one
knew about it
Landed at San Salvador
The Impact of Columbus’ Voyages
Columbian Exchange
Name for trade between Europe and the Americas
American foods were introduced in Europe
Spanish brought horses to the Americas
Also brought smallpox and other diseases
• Killed millions
Sparked a desire in the rest of Europe to explore
new world
Dividing the New Lands
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty that divided trade in the Americas
between Spain and Portugal
• Spain took most of Central and South America and
Philippines
• Portugal claimed lands in Africa, Asia, and East
Indies
Vespucci, Balboa, and Magellan
Amerigo Vespucci
Believed that Columbus did not discover Asia
Explored North American continent
First to call it the New World
America was named after him
Balboa
South Sea
Magellan
Pacific Ocean – named by Magellan, means peaceful
Proved that the western lands were a New World, not
a part of Asia
First to sail around world
Portuguese Expansion
Conquered lands in East Indies
Allowed Portuguese to control others’ access to
Asian goods and markets
The Slave Trade
Triangular trade
Merchants shipped goods to Africa
Slaves were sent to the Americas
Merchants sent products to Europe
African kingdoms and slavery
Not all African kingdoms participated in slave
trade
Some native populations in Africa were depleted
The Portuguese Empire Weakens
Lacked wealth and population needed to
sustain expansion and colonization
Battles cost money and lives
Portugal’s population was too small to replace
needed people
The Spanish and Dutch
Empires
Essential Questions:
How did Spain extended its power abroad
and at home?
Why were the Dutch successful in the
1600s?
Analyze why the Spanish Empire declined.
Spain’s Colonial Empire
Conquests
Ponce de Leon
• Explored Florida and Caribbean
Cortés conquered Aztecs
• Defeated Montezuma at Tenochtitlán and built Mexico City in
its place
Colonial government and society
Spanish brought new things to new world
• Horses
• Guns
• Disease
 Weakened native Aztec populations
Spain grew wealthy
Spain’s Colonial Rivals
French, Dutch, and English wanted a share
of Spain’s wealth and lands
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor
Had conflicting demands between:
• Being king of Spain
• Supporting German aims
• Defending Christian Europe
Realized it was too much for one man
Divided lands among members of his family
Philip II
King of Spain
Controlled every facet of
government
Directed Spanish
Inquisition
Defeated Ottomans
Defeated by England
• Attempted to invade with
the Spanish Armada
(Large Navy)
• Lost control of the
Netherlands
The Rise of the Dutch
The Netherlands break from Spain
Practiced guerrilla warfare
Northern provinces declared independence from Spain
Dutch society
Seafaring people
Religious tolerance
Lively cultural center
The Dutch colonial empire
Trade was controlled by Dutch East India Company
Did not force their own culture or religious beliefs on
other societies
The Spanish Empire Declines
Growing population
Increased costs and shortage of food,
clothing, and housing
Expulsion of Jews and Moriscos (Moorish
converts to Christianity)
Many skilled bankers
Business people
Commercial leaders and artisans
Flow of money out of Spain
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