COT : African Trade with Eurasia West and East Ghana-Songhai Axum-Swahili city-states Africa During the Post classical Period From stateless Societies to Empires the Desire for Sudanic Gold Permeated the period, the Arab Slave trade will Also begin this Period and Continue through The 20th century East Coast begins As Christian Kingdom of Axum est Mediterranean And Red Sea Trade with Rome Later Byzantine Only to move Inward once Muslim invaders Come in and Integrate into Coastal (Swahili) City-states African Kingdom Similarities and Differences Common Elements in African Societies Bantu migration(ends 1000 C.E) Animism lineage important in relation with god (matrilineal) Women elevated in society (bridewealth) The Arrival of Islam in North Africa Arrival of Islam (Spain, by 711) Berber Almoravids Almohads succeed Berbers, 12th century Kingdom of mali est. 13thh ce providing 2/3 of World’s gold The Christian Kingdoms: Nubia and Ethiopia Copts Egyptian Christians spread to Nubia (Kush) Ethiopia-interior migration after Muslim expansion Empires of Africa Kingdoms of the Grasslands Caravans Sahel - transfer point Sudanic States Rulers sacred Islam Mansa Kankan Musa pilgrimage Ishal al-Sahili (Sp. Architect) beaten clay architecture Established city of Timbuktu (Islamic Scholarship flourishes) Empires of the Western Sudan The Empire of Mali Malinke peoples from Ghana Agriculture, gold trade Sundiata (d.1260) the “Lion Prince” mansa (ruler) expanded state African Kingdoms City Dwellers and Villagers Jenne, Timbuktu thrive with expansion The Songhay Kingdom (Capital: Gao) Middle Niger valley Independent by 700 Muslim by 1010 Sunni Ali (1464-1492) Hausa states, northern Nigeria Some merchants Religious diffusion? Majority farmers Muslim center Political and Social Life in the Sudanic States Fusion of traditions Swahili Coast The Swahili Coast of East Africa Trading ports The Coastal Trading Ports (*Mogadishu*, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar) Don’t need to know, just be familiar Madagascar Muslim influence Cultural diffusion and synthesis SEA imports Blended culture (Bantu-Arabic-India) The Swahili Coast Swahili Coast (cont’d) The Mixture of Cultures on the Swahili Coast Islam unifies Other Characteristics Egalitarian/homogenous to cosmopolitan/diverse Key Exports & Imports (interior African goods for exterior Eurasian good) Two distinct “trading seasons” Connection to China? When did this exchange with China end? COT Africa Trade 600-1450 Changes Continuities Mali and Songhai Expanded trade past Mediterranean world Swahili city-states Role of Indian Ocean trade Role of Islam Mansa Musa’s Hajj Timbuktu and Jene Jene Gold and Salt trade increased with Europe’s insatiable demand Camel caravanaseri’s increase due to the increased global demand for African goods (Gold, animal skins, ivory,) Soldiers cleared land for planting rice, yams, beans and to raise cattle, sheep and goats Mali became productive farming region Rainforest Kingdoms like Benin and Kongo provide woven fabrics and wood, ivory and metal art for trade) Africans who were the link (middlemen) between foreign traders and iInland Africans brought: gold, copper, & ivory Arab traders brought: porcelain, spices & fabrics Met in coastal city-states ( Mombasa, Sofala, Kilwa) Use of the Arab Dhow to utilize seasonal monsoon winds Camel Caravans Trans-Saharan tade Use of Nile and red sea for trade (coptic Christianity still in East Africa modern Ethiopia) Animism still predominant Women still important economically ( cattle raisers, matrilineal, bridewealth) Stateless societies persist which engage in trade Gold and Sal trade continue Regional trade still exists amongst African stateless societies (although now increasingly interconnected with global trade) Geography still serves to hinder many merchants’ Use of iron metallurgy still important for agriculture and safe trade Bantu still a commonly spoken family of languages for merchants. Dumb barter still utilized (although replaced in many areas by Muslim regulations on trade) From 600-1450 African trade intensified across the Sahara and Indian Ocean aided and abetted by the growth of the Muslim territories, it enhanced trade regulations through the enforcement of Sharia, Koran and hadith, however, the commodities of gold, salt, iron and ivory remain staples for the economies of African stateless societies.