File - Key Stage 2 Literacy

A metaphor helps to describe an object or feeling as if it really is something and not
as if it was like something. A metaphor compares an object or feeling to something
else. Feelings are often known as abstract nouns as they cannot he held, seen or
The car was a cheetah as it sped along the open road.
The car (a noun) is compared to a cheetah (metaphor) because both are fast- they
have the same qualities or characteristics
The clouds are fluffy balls of cotton wool.
The clouds (the noun) are compared to cotton wool (metaphor) because both are
considered to be fluffy in their appearance
Alliteration is the repetition of the same sound from one word to the next. This should
not be confused with using the same letter at the beginning of each word as this is
not alliteration.
The soft, silky snow drifted slowly to the floor.
Here the ‘s’ sound is repeated in adjectives, nouns and adverbs
Meanwhile, the man’s memories moved to the melody.
Here the ‘m’ sound is repeated in the opener, the nouns and the verb
Personification involves giving a noun (an object) or abstract noun (a feeling) real life
or human-like qualities. In doing this, you need to think about how the object acts,
moves or is shaped like a human.
The wind whistled through the branches.
Wind whistled
The car engine coughed and spluttered as it tried to get going in the cold winter’s
The car coughed and spluttered
The water beckoned invitingly to the hot swimmers.
The water beckoned
In these examples, the personified article is the verb.
Onomatopoeia is where you use words that are written as they sound. These words
are most commonly used in poetry, although we often use these words without trying
as well.
There are literally hundreds of words that fit into this category:
Crash, burp, gargle, drip, bounce, splash
Similes are very similar to metaphors in that you must compare the object to
something else, however instead of saying that the object is something else, we
compare it by using ‘like’ or ‘as.’
The runner was like a speeding bullet.
A simple simile describes the runner to a speeding bullet without saying why, but uses
The runner was as fast as a speeding bullet.
A simile that explains how the runner is like a speeding bullet- adding that both are as
‘fast’ as each other
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