Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes Text A The Freedom Givers Text B The Dream, The Stars and Dr. King Text A The Freedom Givers • Background Information • Timeline of Slavery • • • • Freedom givers in USA: --- Abraham Lincoln --- John F. Kennedy --- Martin Luther King • Underground Railway Timeline of Slavery 1619 -- Slaves in Virginia 1860 -- Abraham Lincoln Elected 1705 -- Slaves as Property 1775 -- American Revolution Begins 1776 -- Declaration of Independence 1783 -- American Revolution Ends 1808 -- United States Bans Slave Trade 1861~1865 -- United States Civil War 1863 -- Emancipation Proclamation 1865 -- Slavery Abolished Timeline of Slavery • 1619 -- Slaves in Virginia Africans brought to Jamestown are the first slaves imported into Britain’s North American colonies. • 1705 -- Slaves as Property Describing slaves as real estate, Virginia lawmakers allow owners to bequeath their slaves. The same law allowed masters to “kill and destroy” runaways. • 1775 -- American Revolution Begins Battles at the Massachusetts towns of Lexington and Concord on April 19 spark the war for American independence from Britain. • 1776 -- Declaration of Independence The Continental Congress asserts “that these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States”. • 1783 -- American Revolution Ends Britain and the infant United States sign the Peace of Paris treaty. • 1808 -- United States Bans Slave Trade Importing African slaves is outlawed, but smuggling continues. • 1860 -- Abraham Lincoln Elected Abraham Lincoln of Illinois becomes the first Republican to win the United States Presidency. • 1861~1865 -- United States Civil War Four years of brutal conflict claim 623,000 lives. • 1863 -- Emancipation Proclamation President Abraham Lincoln decrees that all slaves in Rebel territory are free on January 1, 1863. • 1865 -- Slavery Abolished The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution outlaws slavery. Think While Listening • What are the special contributions of Abraham, John and Martin to the Americans? • How did the three men die? • Whom did they free? Abraham Lincoln John F. Kennedy Martin Luther King Underground Railroad • Read the introductory part of the text (Page 38) and think about the following questions. • 1. What is an underground railroad in the normal sense? • 2. What is this underground railroad special for? • 3. Can you imagine what this railroad was built for? • 4. What probably are the dreams of the passengers? • 5. What probably is the destination of their dreams? General Information of the Underground Railroad • The Underground Railroad was not underground. Because escaping slaves and the people who helped them were technically breaking the law, they had to stay out of sight. They went “underground” in terms of concealing their actions. Sometimes they even hid in unusual places. General Information of the Underground Railroad • Many clever and creative ideas helped slaves during their escape. When abolitionist (废奴主义 者) John Fairfield needed to sneak (偷偷摸摸地 进行) 28 slaves over the roads near Cincinnati, he hired a hearse (灵车) and disguised the group as a funeral procession. General Information of the Underground Railroad • Henry “Box” Brown, a slave, had himself shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia in a wooden box. • The routes the slaves traveled appear in this map. The trip is 560 miles (900 kilometers) long. • A strong, lucky runaway might have made it to freedom in two months. For others, especially in bad weather, the trek (跋涉) might have lasted a year. Text Organization • Ss scan the text to see if there is any natural division between parts of the text. Part 1: Para1-5 I was intent on telling their stories. Part 2: Para 6-10 John Parker Part 3: Para 11-15 Levi Coffin Part 3: Para 15-23 Josiah Henson Ss read the text carefully and try to summarize the main idea of each part • Part 1: It is high time to honor the heroes who helped liberate slaves by forging the Underground Railroad in the early civil-rights struggles in America. • Part 2: After winning his own freedom from slavery, John Parker helped other slaves to escape north to Canada to get freedom. • Part 3: Supported by a strong religious conviction, the white man Levi Coffin helped black slaves to escape at huge risk. • Part 4: By traveling the Underground Railroad, Josiah Henson reached his destination and became free at last. Important Language Points • A gentle breeze swept the Canadian plains … (Line 1) • breeze: n. a gentle wind e.g. a cool, refreshing breeze 一阵凉爽清新的微风 • All of the following words are related to wind. Can you match them with their definitions? 1. hurricane 2. gust 3. gale 4. tornado A. a strong, abrupt rush of wind 2 阵风 B. a very strong wind 3 大风 C. a severe tropical cyclone, usu. involving heavy rains 1 飓风 D. a rotating column of air 4 龙卷风 A racial sellout unwilling to stand up for himself? (Line 12-13) • racial: adj. relating to a person’s race, or to different races of people • e.g. There is a serious racial conflict in that African country. • 种族歧视 racial discrimination • stand up for: speak, work, etc. in favor of sb./sth.; support sb./sth • 我所有的朋友都会支持我。 • All my friends will stand up for me. • Don’t be afraid to stand up for your rights. • stand up to: 勇敢地面对；经得起 • A soldier must stand up to the danger. • 你的论点根本经不起仔细检查。 • Your argument just won’t stand up to close scrutiny. “Josiah Henson was a man of principle,”… (Line 14) • principle: a rule or standard, especially of good behavior • She was a woman of principle. • 我们恪守对大家都一视同仁的原则。 • We adhere to the principle that everyone should be treated fairly. Collocation: against one’s principle 违反原则 as a matter of principle 作为原则性问题 by principle 按照原则，根据原则 of principle 有原则的 adhere to one’s principles 坚持原则 abandon one’s principles 抛弃原则 I had traveled here to Henson’s last home -- now a historic site (Line 15) • historic: adj. famous or important in history 泛指历史上有名的或富有历史意义的 • a historic meeting between the two leaders • The signing of the Declaration of Independence was a historic occasion. 《独立宣言》的签署是具有历史意义的事件。 • historical 主要意思是属于历史的，历史上的，与历史 有关的，真实的而不是传说中的 • He gave all his historical papers to the library. • 他把他所有的历史资料都赠送给这个图书馆。 • site: n. place where a building , town, etc. was, is, or will be situated • The site for the new factory has not been decided. a historic site construction sites a battlefield site 历史古迹 建筑工地 战场的遗址 … men and women who together forged the Underground Railroad,… (Line 22) forge: v. 1. create by means of much hard work • 他们和法国共产党建立了联系。 • They forged links with the French Communist Party. 2. make a forgery or counterfeit • 伪造签名 • forge a signature President Clinton authorized $16 million… (Line 26) • authorize: vt. give approval or permission for (sth.); give authority to • 主任允许我们在实验室工作。 • The director authorized us to work in the laboratory. • The government authorized the publication of this book. …their exploits still largely unsung. (Line 30) exploit: 1. n. brave or adventurous deed or action • 歌颂某人的功绩 • sing sb.’s exploits • 他的战功使我感到惊异。 • His military exploits amazed me. 2. vt. employ to the greatest possible advantage exploit one’s talents 充分发挥某人的才能 exploit one’s friends 利用自己的朋友 这家公司用工时长、工资低的方法来剥削工人。 The company exploited its workers with long hours and low pay. I was intent on telling their stories. (Line 30-31) • be intent on doing sth.: be eager and determined to do sth. • 他决心去法国继续深造。 • He is intent on going to France to continue his studies. • He was intent on the job he was doing. Eventually he saved enough money working at this trade on the side to… (Line 41) • on the side: as an additional job or source of income; secretly • He is a teacher, but he makes a little money on the side by running a small business in his free time. • 他虽有妻室，但暗地里还有一个女朋友。 • He’s married but he has a girlfriend on the side. Parker watched helplessly as the pursuers closed in… (Line 52) • close in (on/around): come near to, esp. in order to attack from several directions; surround • The people were trapped when the enemy army began to close in on them. • Night is closing in. … whites were commonly driven by religious convictions. (Line 59) • conviction: n. firm opinion or belief • She expressed her firm conviction that television was harmful to children. • 她坚信她是对的。 • She had a firm conviction that she was right. Collocation: a lifelong conviction 终身的信仰 political conviction 政治信念 strengthen/deepen one’s conviction that… 增强/加深某 人的信念… a magistrate might have imposed a fine… (Line 71) impose: vt. 1.place (a penalty, tax, etc.) officially on sb./sth. • 征收进口税 • impose a tax on imports • New duties were imposed on wines and spirits. 2. try to make sb. accept (an opinion or a belief) 把…强加于… impose … on … She imposed her ideas on the group. … that he disguised them as a funeral procession. (Line 85) • disguise: vt. give sb./sth. a false appearance • disguise sb./sth. as • She disguised herself as a man so she could fight on the battlefield. • 这一事实是无法隐瞒的。 • It is impossible to disguise the fact. Money problems eventually compelled his master to… (Line 94) • compel: vt. make (sb.) do sth.; force • Duty compelled the soldiers to volunteer for the mission. • 大雨迫使我们呆在屋内。 • The heavy rain compelled us to stay indoors. compel sb. to do sth. 强迫某人做某事 be compelled to (do) 不得不（做） At huge risk, Henson and his wife set off … (Line 102) • at risk: threatened by the possibility of loss, failure, etc.; in danger • The disease is spreading, and all children under five are at risk. at all risks (=at any risk) 无论冒什么危险； 无论如何 at the risk of 冒……之险；不 顾……之风险 Two weeks later, starving and exhausted, … (Line 103) • starve: v. (cause a person or an animal to) suffer severely or die from hunger • starve to death • What's for dinner? I'm starving! • starve for news 渴望消息 • 她很寂寞，渴望友谊。 • She's lonely, and starving for companionship. I passed for a madman. (Line 112) • pass for: appear like; be accepted or looked upon as (same as pass as) • I can’t imagine how this place passes for a five-star hotel. • 他被误认为是个有学问的人。 • He passes for a learned man. Home assignments • Read Text A carefully; • Finish exercises after Text A; • Read Text B.