Civil-Rights Heroes

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Unit 2
Civil-Rights Heroes
Text A The Freedom Givers
Text B The Dream, The Stars and
Dr. King
Text A The Freedom Givers
• Background Information
•
Timeline of Slavery
•
•
•
•
Freedom givers in USA:
--- Abraham Lincoln
--- John F. Kennedy
--- Martin Luther King
•
Underground Railway
Timeline of Slavery
1619 -- Slaves in Virginia
1860 -- Abraham
Lincoln Elected
1705 -- Slaves as Property
1775 -- American
Revolution Begins
1776 -- Declaration of
Independence
1783 -- American
Revolution Ends
1808 -- United
States Bans Slave
Trade
1861~1865 -- United
States Civil War
1863 -- Emancipation
Proclamation
1865 -- Slavery
Abolished
Timeline of Slavery
• 1619 -- Slaves in Virginia
Africans brought to Jamestown are the first slaves
imported into Britain’s North American colonies.
• 1705 -- Slaves as Property
Describing slaves as real estate, Virginia lawmakers
allow owners to bequeath their slaves. The same law
allowed masters to “kill and destroy” runaways.
• 1775 -- American Revolution Begins
Battles at the Massachusetts towns of Lexington and
Concord on April 19 spark the war for American
independence from Britain.
• 1776 -- Declaration of Independence
The Continental Congress asserts “that these United
Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and
Independent States”.
• 1783 -- American Revolution Ends
Britain and the infant United States sign the Peace of
Paris treaty.
• 1808 -- United States Bans Slave Trade
Importing African slaves is outlawed, but smuggling
continues.
• 1860 -- Abraham Lincoln Elected
Abraham Lincoln of Illinois becomes the first Republican
to win the United States Presidency.
• 1861~1865 -- United States Civil War
Four years of brutal conflict claim 623,000 lives.
• 1863 -- Emancipation Proclamation
President Abraham Lincoln decrees that all slaves in
Rebel territory are free on January 1, 1863.
• 1865 -- Slavery Abolished
The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution
outlaws slavery.
Think While Listening
• What are the special contributions of
Abraham, John and Martin to the
Americans?
• How did the three men die?
• Whom did they free?
Abraham Lincoln
John F. Kennedy
Martin Luther King
Underground Railroad
• Read the introductory part of the text (Page 38) and think about the
following questions.
• 1. What is an underground railroad in the normal
sense?
• 2. What is this underground railroad special for?
• 3. Can you imagine what this railroad was built
for?
• 4. What probably are the dreams of the
passengers?
• 5. What probably is the destination of their
dreams?
General Information of the
Underground Railroad
•
The Underground Railroad was not
underground. Because escaping slaves and the
people who helped them were technically
breaking the law, they had to stay out of sight.
They went “underground” in terms of concealing
their actions. Sometimes they even hid in
unusual places.
General Information of the
Underground Railroad
•
Many clever and creative ideas helped slaves
during their escape. When abolitionist (废奴主义
者) John Fairfield needed to sneak (偷偷摸摸地
进行) 28 slaves over the roads near Cincinnati,
he hired a hearse (灵车) and disguised the
group as a funeral procession.
General Information of the
Underground Railroad
•
Henry “Box” Brown, a slave, had himself
shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia in a
wooden box.
•
The routes the slaves traveled appear in this
map. The trip is 560 miles (900 kilometers) long.
•
A strong, lucky runaway might have made it to
freedom in two months. For others, especially in
bad weather, the trek (跋涉) might have lasted a
year.
Text Organization
• Ss scan the text to see if there is any
natural division between parts of the text.
Part 1: Para1-5
I was intent on telling their stories.
Part 2: Para 6-10
John Parker
Part 3: Para 11-15
Levi Coffin
Part 3: Para 15-23
Josiah Henson
Ss read the text carefully and try to summarize the main idea of each part
• Part 1: It is high time to honor the heroes who
helped liberate slaves by forging the
Underground Railroad in the early civil-rights
struggles in America.
• Part 2: After winning his own freedom from
slavery, John Parker helped other slaves to
escape north to Canada to get freedom.
• Part 3: Supported by a strong religious
conviction, the white man Levi Coffin helped
black slaves to escape at huge risk.
• Part 4: By traveling the Underground Railroad,
Josiah Henson reached his destination and
became free at last.
Important Language Points
•
A gentle breeze swept the Canadian
plains … (Line 1)
•
breeze: n. a gentle wind
e.g. a cool, refreshing breeze
一阵凉爽清新的微风
• All of the following words are related to wind.
Can you match them with their definitions?
1. hurricane
2. gust
3. gale
4. tornado
A. a strong, abrupt rush of wind
2 阵风
B. a very strong wind
3 大风
C. a severe tropical cyclone, usu. involving heavy rains 1 飓风
D. a rotating column of air
4 龙卷风
A racial sellout unwilling to stand up for himself?
(Line 12-13)
• racial: adj. relating to a person’s race, or to
different races of people
• e.g. There is a serious racial
conflict in that African country.
•
种族歧视 racial discrimination
• stand up for: speak, work, etc. in favor of
sb./sth.; support sb./sth
• 我所有的朋友都会支持我。
• All my friends will stand up for me.
•
Don’t be afraid to stand up for your
rights.
• stand up to: 勇敢地面对;经得起
• A soldier must stand up to the danger.
• 你的论点根本经不起仔细检查。
• Your argument just won’t stand up to close
scrutiny.
“Josiah Henson was a man of principle,”…
(Line 14)
• principle: a rule or standard, especially of
good behavior
• She was a woman of principle.
• 我们恪守对大家都一视同仁的原则。
• We adhere to the principle that everyone
should be treated fairly.
Collocation:
against one’s principle
违反原则
as a matter of principle
作为原则性问题
by principle
按照原则,根据原则
of principle
有原则的
adhere to one’s principles
坚持原则
abandon one’s principles
抛弃原则
I had traveled here to Henson’s last home -- now a
historic site (Line 15)
• historic: adj. famous or important in history
泛指历史上有名的或富有历史意义的
• a historic meeting between
the two leaders
• The signing of the Declaration
of Independence was a historic occasion.
《独立宣言》的签署是具有历史意义的事件。
• historical 主要意思是属于历史的,历史上的,与历史
有关的,真实的而不是传说中的
• He gave all his historical papers to the
library.
• 他把他所有的历史资料都赠送给这个图书馆。
• site: n. place where a building , town, etc.
was, is, or will be situated
•
The site for the new factory has not
been decided.
a historic site
construction sites
a battlefield site
历史古迹
建筑工地
战场的遗址
… men and women who together forged the
Underground Railroad,… (Line 22)
forge: v.
1. create by means of much hard work
• 他们和法国共产党建立了联系。
• They forged links with the French
Communist Party.
2. make a forgery or counterfeit
• 伪造签名
• forge a signature
President Clinton authorized $16 million… (Line 26)
• authorize: vt. give approval or permission
for (sth.); give authority to
• 主任允许我们在实验室工作。
• The director authorized us to work in the
laboratory.
•
The government authorized the
publication of this book.
…their exploits still largely unsung. (Line 30)
exploit:
1. n. brave or adventurous deed or action
• 歌颂某人的功绩
• sing sb.’s exploits
• 他的战功使我感到惊异。
• His military exploits amazed me.
2. vt. employ to the greatest possible
advantage
exploit one’s talents
充分发挥某人的才能
exploit one’s friends 利用自己的朋友
这家公司用工时长、工资低的方法来剥削工人。
The company exploited its workers
with long hours and low pay.
I was intent on telling their stories. (Line 30-31)
• be intent on doing sth.: be eager and
determined to do sth.
• 他决心去法国继续深造。
• He is intent on going to France to continue
his studies.
•
He was intent on the job he was doing.
Eventually he saved enough money working at this
trade on the side to… (Line 41)
• on the side: as an additional job or source
of income; secretly
• He is a teacher, but he makes a little
money on the side by running a small
business in his free time.
• 他虽有妻室,但暗地里还有一个女朋友。
• He’s married but he has a girlfriend on the
side.
Parker watched helplessly as the pursuers
closed in… (Line 52)
• close in (on/around): come near to, esp. in
order to attack from several directions;
surround
• The people were trapped when the enemy
army began to close in on them.
• Night is closing in.
… whites were commonly driven by religious
convictions. (Line 59)
• conviction: n. firm opinion or belief
• She expressed her firm conviction that
television was harmful to children.
• 她坚信她是对的。
• She had a firm conviction that she was
right.
Collocation:
a lifelong conviction
终身的信仰
political conviction
政治信念
strengthen/deepen one’s
conviction that…
增强/加深某
人的信念…
a magistrate might have imposed a fine…
(Line 71)
impose: vt.
1.place (a penalty, tax, etc.) officially on
sb./sth.
• 征收进口税
• impose a tax on imports
•
New duties were imposed
on wines and spirits.
2. try to make sb. accept (an opinion or a
belief) 把…强加于…
impose … on …
She imposed her ideas on the group.
… that he disguised them as a funeral
procession. (Line 85)
• disguise: vt. give sb./sth. a false
appearance
• disguise sb./sth. as
• She disguised herself as a man so she
could fight on the battlefield.
• 这一事实是无法隐瞒的。
• It is impossible to disguise the fact.
Money problems eventually compelled his
master to… (Line 94)
• compel: vt. make (sb.) do sth.; force
• Duty compelled the soldiers to volunteer
for the mission.
• 大雨迫使我们呆在屋内。
• The heavy rain compelled us
to stay indoors.
compel sb. to do sth.
强迫某人做某事
be compelled to (do)
不得不(做)
At huge risk, Henson and his wife set off …
(Line 102)
• at risk: threatened by the possibility of loss,
failure, etc.; in danger
• The disease is spreading, and all children
under five are at risk.
at all risks (=at any
risk)
无论冒什么危险;
无论如何
at the risk of
冒……之险;不
顾……之风险
Two weeks later, starving and exhausted, …
(Line 103)
• starve: v. (cause a person or an animal to)
suffer severely or die from hunger
• starve to death
• What's for dinner? I'm starving!
• starve for news 渴望消息
• 她很寂寞,渴望友谊。
• She's lonely, and starving for companionship.
I passed for a madman. (Line 112)
• pass for: appear like; be accepted or
looked upon as (same as pass as)
• I can’t imagine how this place passes for a
five-star hotel.
• 他被误认为是个有学问的人。
• He passes for a learned man.
Home assignments
• Read Text A carefully;
• Finish exercises after Text A;
• Read Text B.
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