Jacques Cartier and the Iroquois By

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Unit 8 – Arrival in Canada
SECTION 2- Jacques Cartier and the Iroquois
By: Jerry, Zach, Devon
Who was Jacques Cartier?
 Jacques Cartier was born in
Saint-Malo, Brittany,
France.
 He was born in the year
1491.
 In his early years, Cartier
received a very good
education, probably
studying cartography,
navigation, astronomy,
mathematics, and
seamanship.
Who was Jacques Cartier?
 In 1520, Cartier married the
love of his life, Catherine
des Granches, who was the
daughter of a constable of
Saint-Malo.
 He and his wife lived in
Dieppe, but they did not
have children.
 While in Dieppe, he
acquired the skills of a
seafarer.
Cartier Accompanies Giovanni
 Giovanni da Verrazzano
was an experienced
seaman who discovered
Manhattan, New York
Harbour, Narragansett
Bay, and explored
between the Carolinas
and Newfoundland.
 Giovanni was an Italian,
but he sailed under the
French flag and lived in
Dieppe.
Giovanni da Verrazzano’s Explorations
Cartier Accompanies Giovanni
 In 1524, he set out on an
expedition and explored
the northeast coast of
North America.
 It was believed that
Jacques Cartier
accompanied
Verrazzano and earned a
reputation as an
experienced navigator
and great leader.
Giovanni da Verrazzano
Cartier’s
st
1
Voyage to Canada
 In 1532, the bishop of Saint-
Malo (Jean Le Veneur)
recommended to the King of
France that Cartier lead a
voyage to the New World, in
order to convert the ‘heathen
natives’ to Catholicism.
 However, it wasn’t until 1534
that King Francois I sent him
to “discover certain islands and
lands where it is said there is a
large amount of gold and other
riches to be found.”
King Francois I
Cartier’s
st
1
Voyage to Canada
 So on April 20, 1534 he set sail
with his crew of 61 men on a small
60 tonne ship called ‘The Grande
Hermine’ as well as another small
ship.
 20 days later he arrived at
Newfoundland and then
continued to explore the coast of
Labrador. He reached the Îles de
la Madeleine on June 26 and then
on June 29th, Cartier discovered
Prince Edward Island.
 He continued to look for a
passage through North America.
Cartier’s
st
1
Voyage to Canada
 Cartier then sailed inland for
1000 miles, up a river which he
charted and named the ‘St.
Lawrence River’.
 He then entered the Baie de
Gaspé where he met a group of
Iroquois. He claimed the land
as France’s, which caused Chief
Donnacona to protest, but then
Cartier took 2 of his sons back
to France to “give proof of the
New World.” However, that was
the last time the Chief would
see his sons.
Cartier’s
st
1
Voyage to Canada
 He called the land “Kanata”
which meant ‘village’ or
‘settlement’ in the HuronIroquois language.
 Cartier sailed North to the Île
d'Anticosti and then to
Newfoundland. On August
15, he set sail on the Atlantic
and arrived back in St-Malo
on Sep. 5th, 1534.
 This first voyage of Cartier's’
lasted 137 days.
Cartier’s
nd
2
Voyage to Canada
 On May 26, 1535 Cartier
embarked on a second
voyage to Canada.
 This time he had 3 ships
(Grande Hermine, Petite
Hermine, and Émérillon)
and 110 men.
 He first explored parts of
Montreal, then returned
to Quebec, where he
spent the winter at
Stadacona, near some
native villages.
Cartier’s
nd
2
Voyage to Canada
 During the winter, 25 of his
men died from an outbreak
of scurvy.
 Cartier had heard talk
about a secret land that was
“rich and wealthy in
precious stones.” He sought
more information about
the rich land called
‘Saguenay’.
 He found out that it could
be accessed most easily by
the River Ottawa.
Cartier’s
nd
2
Voyage to Canada
 In order to give the king
accurate information, Cartier
kidnapped Chief Donnacona of
the natives as well as some
other natives from the tribe.
 He left on May 6, and arrived
back in Saint-Malo on July 16,
1537.
 Cartier reported to the King
the ‘Kingdom of Saguenay’,
supported by Donnacona.
 The French Council began to
make plans to colonize Canada.
Cartier’s
rd
3
Voyage to Canada
 On January 15, 1541, Jean-François
de la Rocque, sieur de Roberval
was chosen by the king to lead the
colonization of Canada
 On May 23, Cartier set sail with 5
ships and a crew of about 1500
which were to meet up with
Roberval who set sail on April 1542.
 He set up camp at CharlesbourgRoyal and told the natives that
Donnacona had died, and the
others had become rich and
Jean-François de la Rocque, sieur
settled down in France.
de Roberval
Cartier’s
rd
3
Voyage to Canada
 The natives were furious and
attacked the Frenchmen to
the point where Cartier
decided to go back to France.
 Cartier met Roberval in
Newfoundland on his way
back to France.
 He warned Roberval not to go
to Canada because of the
severe weather conditions.
 Cartier arrived back in France
and waited there for
Roberval’s return.
Charlesbourg-Royal
Where the Huron-Iroquois lived
Cartier’s
rd
3
Voyage to Canada
 Roberval ignored Cartier’s
warning and attempted to
start a settlement.
 The mission proved futile,
and the expedition returned
to France on June 6, 1543.
 During the expedition,
Cartier claimed he had
found gold and diamonds.
However, the ‘gold’ was
actually iron pyrite, and the
‘diamonds’ were only
quartz.
Latter Part of Cartier’s Life
 It appears that Cartier did
not get assigned another
expedition.
 In 1545, he published an
account of his voyages and
discoveries.
 He settled down in his manor
at Limoilou and died on
September 1st, 1557.
 Later, in April of 1575,
Catherine des Granches, the
widow of Jacques Cartier
died.
The Beginning of the Fur Trade
 During his expeditions,
Jacques Cartier traded with the
natives.
 The natives traded him furs,
food, weapons and canoes, as
well as other things in
exchange for guns, pots, and
other items.
 The natives benefitted more
by the trading, because they
gave essentially useless furs for
important guns and things
that helped them in life.
http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.ph
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