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Africa
Physical Features
• Nile River
– (North East Africa)
• Niger River
– North West Africa
Physical Geography Features
• Deserts-
– dry, arid land with little to no water or vegetation(plants
growing)
• Grasslands (called Savannas)
–
–
–
–
Semi-arid land outside of a desert region.
Seasonal rains
Low vegetation
Lots of animals
• Tropical Rainforests
–
–
–
–
Heavy and consistent rainfall
Hot & humid climate
Abundance of vegetation & tall trees
Animals
Physical
Features
• 2 Major Lakes
– Victoria
– Chad
African Civilizations
Egyptian
• Agriculture began
around 5450 (BCE) in
the area.
– People changed from
hunter-gathers to
farmers
– Egyptians came to
depend on the Nile River
to grow crops and
maintain livestock.
– The Nile floods each summer,
bring more water for
irrigation and new fertile
soil to the river valley.
Egypt
Egypt
• Other Natural
Resources:
– Limestone
– Granite
• Egyptians use these
stone resources to
build their huge
monuments and
buildings
Temple at Karnak
Egypt
History
Egypt
• Historians split Egypt’s history into 3 main
periods.
– The Old Kingdom
– The Middle Kingdom
– The New Kingdom
• The Old Kingdom
– Namer (Menes) is the
first Pharaoh of a
united Egypt
– First pyramids are
built during this
period, they are royal
tombs
– 2 social classes form
• Lower: peasants and
farmers
• Upper: Pharaoh, royal
family, priests,
scribes, and
government officials
Egypt
Egypt
• The Great Sphinx
– We are still not sure who, when, or why
• It could have possibly been the Pharaoh Khafra,
around 2500 BCE
Egypt
• Great
Pyramids
at Giza.
Eygpt
• Old Kingdom
– Pharaohs begin to lose power towards the end
of the Old Kingdom, while Nobles begin to gain
power.
– Power struggles lead to decline and the First
Intermediate Period (time in between the
Kingdoms)
• The Middle Kingdom
– Golden Age of Egypt
2080BCE to 1780 BCE
– Was a time of general
prosperity and stability for
Egyptians
– This period came to an end
with the Rise of the Hyksos.
• Nomads from Asia that
gained power as the stability
of the Middle Kingdom fell
apart
• They had horse-drawn
carriages and compound
bows
Egypt
• New Kingdom
Egypt
– Strong Leaders from
Upper Egypt drive out
the Hyksos around 1570
BCE
– A new line of Kings is
established, based out of
Thebes
– Built the Egyptian
Empire
• Empire- a grouping of
city-states under one
Ruler
Egypt
Rulers and Traditions
Notable Pharaohs
• Hatsheput
– 1503 BCE to 1482
BCE
– First Female
Pharaoh.
– Ruled while her son
was a child
– Maintained Egyptian
Empire borders
– Often depicted as a
man!
Notable Pharaohs
• Amenhotep IV
–
–
–
–
–
Tries to bring Monotheism to Egypt
Prays to the sun as the one and only god, Aton
Changes his name to Akhenaton
Wife is Nefertiti, son is Tutankhamun (Tut)
This made him unpopular with the nobles and
priests
– After his death, some tried to erase any signs of
his existence.
Notable Pharaohs
• Tutankhamun
– The boy king. Came to the
Throne when he was 9!
– Was not a strong or very
important Pharaoh.
– The discovery of his intact
tomb, with treasures, in
1922, is what made King Tut
famous today.
– Unfortunately Tut’s body was
almost completely destroyed
by Archeologists trying to get
the amulets and jewels in his
wrappings.
• Ramses II
– Last strong Pharaoh of Egypt
– Called Ramses the Great
– Could be the pharaoh during
the exodus
– 1279 BCE to 1213 BCE (almost
70 years!!!)
Egypt
Religion
• Polytheistic
– Amon-Re (creator),
Osiris (king of the
underworld), Isis
(fertility)… over 1000
gods!
• Believed all creatures
had an afterlife.
• Believed that the body
must be preserved to
have an afterlife
– Mummification.
Egypt
• Valley of the Kings
– tombs were built for the Pharaohs and powerful
nobles of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt.
Egypt
Valley of the Kings
• It contains some 60 tombs, starting with
Thutmose I and ending with Ramses X or XI.
Workers lived in a city called
Deir el Medina just a few
miles away.
Egypt
• Architecture:
–
–
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Pyramids
Temples
Irrigation networks
Sculptures and statues
Egypt
Contributions and Achievements
Egypt
• Scribes
– They were like clerks that
recorded information. They
were also among the only
people that could read and
write in the civilization
Egypt
• Writing
– Hieroglyphics
• They are pictures
that represent sounds
• Egyptians had
invented papyrus, a
type of paper, which
they used to write on.
The cartouche: These
are hieroglyphics that
represent someone’s name.
• We know what
hieroglyphics say
because of the
discovery of the
Rosetta Stone.
– It contains the same
story written in 3
different languages.
– This allowed
archeologists to
decipher
hieroglyphics using a
know language to
compare it to.
Egypt
• Other achievements-
– First Calendar with 12
months
– Number system based on
10
– Used herbs and medicines
to help the sick
– Middle class began to form
• Trade and farming were
important to merchants.
African Civilizations
aka
The Black Pharoahs
Kush (Nubia)
Nubia
• Located between the Red
Sea and the Nile
• Important trade routes
passed through the area.
• Nubia was located in the
upper region of Egypt and
at one time ruled by the
Egyptian Pharaohs.
Nubia
• Nubia was the iron capital
of the Ancient World
• Traded: Gold, ivory, ebony
and ostrich feathers.
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