Africa Physical Features • Nile River – (North East Africa) • Niger River – North West Africa Physical Geography Features • Deserts- – dry, arid land with little to no water or vegetation(plants growing) • Grasslands (called Savannas) – – – – Semi-arid land outside of a desert region. Seasonal rains Low vegetation Lots of animals • Tropical Rainforests – – – – Heavy and consistent rainfall Hot & humid climate Abundance of vegetation & tall trees Animals Physical Features • 2 Major Lakes – Victoria – Chad African Civilizations Egyptian • Agriculture began around 5450 (BCE) in the area. – People changed from hunter-gathers to farmers – Egyptians came to depend on the Nile River to grow crops and maintain livestock. – The Nile floods each summer, bring more water for irrigation and new fertile soil to the river valley. Egypt Egypt • Other Natural Resources: – Limestone – Granite • Egyptians use these stone resources to build their huge monuments and buildings Temple at Karnak Egypt History Egypt • Historians split Egypt’s history into 3 main periods. – The Old Kingdom – The Middle Kingdom – The New Kingdom • The Old Kingdom – Namer (Menes) is the first Pharaoh of a united Egypt – First pyramids are built during this period, they are royal tombs – 2 social classes form • Lower: peasants and farmers • Upper: Pharaoh, royal family, priests, scribes, and government officials Egypt Egypt • The Great Sphinx – We are still not sure who, when, or why • It could have possibly been the Pharaoh Khafra, around 2500 BCE Egypt • Great Pyramids at Giza. Eygpt • Old Kingdom – Pharaohs begin to lose power towards the end of the Old Kingdom, while Nobles begin to gain power. – Power struggles lead to decline and the First Intermediate Period (time in between the Kingdoms) • The Middle Kingdom – Golden Age of Egypt 2080BCE to 1780 BCE – Was a time of general prosperity and stability for Egyptians – This period came to an end with the Rise of the Hyksos. • Nomads from Asia that gained power as the stability of the Middle Kingdom fell apart • They had horse-drawn carriages and compound bows Egypt • New Kingdom Egypt – Strong Leaders from Upper Egypt drive out the Hyksos around 1570 BCE – A new line of Kings is established, based out of Thebes – Built the Egyptian Empire • Empire- a grouping of city-states under one Ruler Egypt Rulers and Traditions Notable Pharaohs • Hatsheput – 1503 BCE to 1482 BCE – First Female Pharaoh. – Ruled while her son was a child – Maintained Egyptian Empire borders – Often depicted as a man! Notable Pharaohs • Amenhotep IV – – – – – Tries to bring Monotheism to Egypt Prays to the sun as the one and only god, Aton Changes his name to Akhenaton Wife is Nefertiti, son is Tutankhamun (Tut) This made him unpopular with the nobles and priests – After his death, some tried to erase any signs of his existence. Notable Pharaohs • Tutankhamun – The boy king. Came to the Throne when he was 9! – Was not a strong or very important Pharaoh. – The discovery of his intact tomb, with treasures, in 1922, is what made King Tut famous today. – Unfortunately Tut’s body was almost completely destroyed by Archeologists trying to get the amulets and jewels in his wrappings. • Ramses II – Last strong Pharaoh of Egypt – Called Ramses the Great – Could be the pharaoh during the exodus – 1279 BCE to 1213 BCE (almost 70 years!!!) Egypt Religion • Polytheistic – Amon-Re (creator), Osiris (king of the underworld), Isis (fertility)… over 1000 gods! • Believed all creatures had an afterlife. • Believed that the body must be preserved to have an afterlife – Mummification. Egypt • Valley of the Kings – tombs were built for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. Egypt Valley of the Kings • It contains some 60 tombs, starting with Thutmose I and ending with Ramses X or XI. Workers lived in a city called Deir el Medina just a few miles away. Egypt • Architecture: – – – – Pyramids Temples Irrigation networks Sculptures and statues Egypt Contributions and Achievements Egypt • Scribes – They were like clerks that recorded information. They were also among the only people that could read and write in the civilization Egypt • Writing – Hieroglyphics • They are pictures that represent sounds • Egyptians had invented papyrus, a type of paper, which they used to write on. The cartouche: These are hieroglyphics that represent someone’s name. • We know what hieroglyphics say because of the discovery of the Rosetta Stone. – It contains the same story written in 3 different languages. – This allowed archeologists to decipher hieroglyphics using a know language to compare it to. Egypt • Other achievements- – First Calendar with 12 months – Number system based on 10 – Used herbs and medicines to help the sick – Middle class began to form • Trade and farming were important to merchants. African Civilizations aka The Black Pharoahs Kush (Nubia) Nubia • Located between the Red Sea and the Nile • Important trade routes passed through the area. • Nubia was located in the upper region of Egypt and at one time ruled by the Egyptian Pharaohs. Nubia • Nubia was the iron capital of the Ancient World • Traded: Gold, ivory, ebony and ostrich feathers.