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CHAPTER 5: KITCHEN
ESSENTIALS 2
ProStart Year 1
EQUIPMENT USED IN THE FLOW OF
FOOD
Receiving
• Tables/receiving areas, scales, utility carts
Storage
• Shelving, refrigerators, freezers
Pre-Preparation
• Knives, Hand tools and small equipment, measuring tools, pots and pans
Food Prep
• Cutters, mixers, steamers, broilers, ranges, ovens.
Holding and Serving
• Hot boxes, coffee makers, beverage machines, steam tables, speed racks
KNIVES
Boning
Used in the
butchering areas
 Separates meat from
the bones
 Blade is thin and
flexible

Chef’s

All purpose knife used
for cutting, chopping,
mincing, and slicing
KNIVES
Cleaver
Heavy, rectangular
knife to chop all kinds
of food
 Used for cutting
through bones

Fillet

Thin, flexible blade for
cutting fish fillets
KNIVES
Paring

Trim and pare fruits
and vegetables
Santoku

General purpose knife
KNIVES
Slicer

Cooks use this knife to
cut cakes and breads
WHAT IS A STEEL AND WHY IS IT
USED?
A steel is a long metal rod that is lightly grooved
and magnetized.
 It removes microscopic burs that are created as a
knife is sharpened
 How do you use one?


Drag the knife along the steel at a 20 degree angle
pushing the knife away from you
SMALLWARES

China Cap


Colander


Mesh screen used to sift flour and other dry baking
ingredients
Chinois


Drains liquid from cooked pasta and veggies
Sieve


Pierced metal cone strainer; used to strain liquids
A very fine China Cap
Strainer

Mesh-like material used to strain items
SMALLWARES

Offset spatula


Rubber spatula


Long handle, used to fold ingredients together and
scrape the sides of the bowls
Sandwich Spreader


Turns food on griddle or broiler
Short, stubby spatula
Straight Spatula

Flexible, rounded tipped tool used for icing cakes,
spreading fillings, and glazes
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?

Pots


Available in a range of sizes based on volume
Pans
Usually smaller and shallower than pots
 General stove-top cooking

CARING FOR TYPES OF METALS

Aluminum
Hand-wash in soapy water
 Use a nonabrasive (soft) cleaner to remove stains


Cast Iron
Wash in warm water with soap
 Keep properly conditioned and dry to prevent rust
and pitting


Chrome
Wash in warm water with soap or detergent
 Do not use harsh cleaners

CARING FOR TYPES OF METALS

Copper


Use commercial cleaners to remove discoloration
before regular washing
Stainless Steel
Wash in hot, soapy water or warm chemicals and
water solution
 Rinse well-dry right away to avoid water spots


Nonstick Coating
Use a plastic mesh scrubber to scrub inside the nonstick pan to avoid scratching
 Remove residue from bottom of the pan or food may
burn

WHAT IS THIS TOOL?
Mandolin

Manual operated
slicer made of
stainless steel with
adjustable blades to
slice and julienne
Immersion Blender
Also known as a handheld blender, stick
blender, or burr mixer
 Used to puree and
blend foods

•To mix
shortening
into dough
Dough Hook
•A heavier
version of
the wire
whip
Pastry Knife
•To beat and
add air to
light foods
Wing Whip
•Mix, Mash
and cream
soft foods
Wire Whip
Flat Paddle
WHAT DOES EACH MIXER
ATTACHMENT DO?
•Used to
mix heavy,
thick dough
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?

Convection


Has a fan that rotates the hot air around the food as
it cooks
Conventional

Have the heat source located on the floor of the oven
so that the heat rises
WHAT’S THIS??
• Any type of hot
water bath to
keep hot foods
hot while
serving
• Use to keep
food items hot
during a buffet
• Made of metal
or steel
• Shelves on
wheels used to
move food
BainMarie
Chafing
Dish
Speed
Rack
• Holds hotel
pans
• Holds hot foods
to keep hot
Steam
Table
MISE EN PLACE
Mise en Place
• French for “to put
everything in its place”
PRE-PREPARATION STEPS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Assemble tools
Assemble ingredients
Wash, trim, cut, prepare, and measure the
ingredients
Prepare the equipment (preheat oven, line the
baking sheets)
WHAT IS A SEASONING?
Something that enhances the flavor of a dish
without changing the dish
Salt, Pepper, Sugar, and Acid are the 4
seasonings.
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
Herbs
•Leaves, stems, or flowers of
aromatic plants
Spices
•Bark, roots, seeds, buds, or
berries from aromatic plants
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
Dried Herbs
•Moisture is removed
•Keep away from
heat, light, and wind
Fresh Herbs
•Use 2-3 times more if
substituting for dried
herbs
WHAT’S UNIQUE?

Garlic and Onion

They are oil-soluble

This means they work well when added to cooking oil
HOW DO YOU SEPARATE EGG
WHITES?
• Crack open the egg over a bowl
1
2
3
• Transfer the egg back and forth between the
shells, letting the white drop out of the shell
into the bowl
• Place yolk in one of the empty bowls
• If any yolk gets into the whites, make sure
to remove them with a spoon
HOW DO YOU WHIP EGG WHITES?
1
2
3
• Clean the bowl and the whisk really well
• Start with the egg whites at room temperature
• Begin whipping the egg whites by hand or using a
machine at medium speed
• Tilt the bowl to make the whipping by hand easier
DEFINE…

Barding


Wrapping an item (usually in meat) with strips of fat
before cooking
Marinating

Soaking an item in a combination of wet and dry
ingredients
DRY-HEAT COOKING METHODS
Broiling
• Rapid cooking method; uses high
heat from source located above
the food
Grilling
• Simple dry-heat method used for
cooking smaller pieces of food.
• Cooked above the heat source
Roasting/Baking
• Cooks food by surrounding the
items with hot, dry air
DRY-HEAT COOKING METHODS
Griddling
• Cooking on a hot, flat surface OR
in a dry, heavy-bottomed fry
pan/cast iron skillet
Sautéing
• Cooks food rapidly in a small
amount of fat over high heat
Stir-Fry
• Close to sauté
• Cooked over high heat, generally
in a wok, and stirred quickly
DRY-HEAT COOKING METHODS
PanFry
• Cook in an oil over
less intense heat than
sautéing or pan-frying
DeepFry
• Bread or batter coat it
• Immerse in hot fat
• Fry until done
MOIST-HEAT COOKING METHODS
Simmering
Poaching
• Completely submerge food in a liquid that is
at a constant, moderate temperature
• Surface of the liquid should show some
motion
• Bubbles should not break the surface
Blanching
• Partially cook food
• AKA (par-cooking)
Steaming
• Surround food in steam in a confined space
such as a steamer basket, cabinet, or combioven
COMBINATION COOKING METHODS
Braising
• Primarily used for larger cuts of
meat
• Sear food in hot oil
• Partially cover in enough hot
liquid to finish off dish
Stewing
• For smaller pieces of food
• Similar to braising; requires
more liquid
• Cut into bite-size pieces, blanch
or sear them
WHAT IS PLATING?
The decision about what serving vessel will be used
to present the product
•Layout
of the items on the plate or bowl
•Garnishing
of the item is included in this decision
WHAT SHOULD YOU CONSIDER
WHEN PLATING?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Look at the plate/bowl as a picture frame. Select
the right dish for the portion size
Maintain a good balance of colors. Remember 3
colors are usually enough
Height makes any plate more attractive
Always cut the ingredients neatly and
uniformly
Keep it simple
WHAT DOES RDA STAND
FOR?
Recommended Dietary Allowances
VEGETARIAN DIETS
Vegetarian Diets
Vegan
LactoOvoLacto-Ovo
Vegetarian Vegetarian Vegetarian
• Strictest diet
• Will consume • All vegan
no dairy,
items but
eggs, meat,
won’t eat
poultry, fish,
dairy
or anything
products
animal
related
• All vegan
• All vegan
items but
items but
won’t eat egg
won’t eat egg
products
or dairy
products
DIETARY GUIDELINES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Adequate nutrition within calorie needs
Weight management
Physical activity
Fats
Encourage food groups
Carbohydrates
Sodium and potassium
Alcoholic beverages in moderation
MY PYRAMID
Grains
Vegetables
Fruits
Milk and Dairy Products
Meat and Beans
MY PYRAMID KEY THEMES
Proportionality
Variety
Physical Activity
Moderation
Gradual Improvement
Personalization
WHAT DOES THE FDA REQUIRE ON
FOOD LABELS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Serving size and servings per
container
Total calories and calories from
fat
Total fat and saturated fat
Trans fat
Cholesterol
Sodium
Total carbohydrates and dietary
fiber
Protein
Vitamins A and C, Calcium, and
Iron
OBESITY

1.
Several causes of obesity are known:
Poverty and food insecurity

2.
3.
4.
Psychological food issues may develop after a period of
extreme hunger or starvation
Family history
Lack of physical activity
Excessive caloric intake for their needs

Lack of nutrition knowledge, larger portion sizes,
emotional reasons, or enjoyment of food
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