Latinas Experiencing Transnational Motherhood

advertisement
Latinas Experiencing
Transnational Motherhood
Rosa Maria Sternberg R.N. Ph.D.
Family Health Care Nursing
University of California San Francisco
Transnational Motherhood
Is defined as the lived experience of
mothers who migrate internationally and
mother from afar.
(Schmalzbauer, 2008)
Purpose of the Study
This study aimed to explore the
experiences of Latinas living
transnational motherhood.
Researcher’s Perspective
• Immigrant
• Nurse in the community
• Vision of change and social justice
Background
• Immigration of Latinas
– Escaping extreme poverty & or violence
– Undocumented
– Immigrate in search of jobs
– To send remittances &
– Support their families from abroad
Methodology
Qualitative Design
Philosophical Approach:
Hermeneutic Phenomenology
Max Van Manen (1990)
Semi-structured Interviews
 Spanish
 1 to 2 hours in length
 Audio taped
 In their homes and local restaurants
Sample
 Eight Latina transnational mothersSouth Florida
 Convenience sample
 Snowball sample
Demographics
– El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico
– Ages 21 to 39 years of age
– 1 to 6 children back in their country
– 50% (n=4) women were married
– 40% (n=3) women had given birth since living
in the U.S.
Demographics
– In the U.S. 1 to 13 years
– 40% (n=3) of women - 9 to 11 years of formal
education
– 60% (n=5) of women - 3 to 5 years of formal
education
Findings
Seven Essential Themes
Emerged from the Data
Seven Essential Themes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Living in extreme poverty
Having hope
Choosing to walk away from poverty
Suffering through the trip here
Mothering from afar
Valuing family
Changing personally
Theme #1
Living in Extreme Poverty
• Without basic human needs:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Food
Clean drinking water
Sanitation
Clothing
Adequate shelter
Health care
• Without opportunity for work
• Endured violence
Dolores,
“We are very poor and we have nothing…I came here
because it is the only way.”
Theme #2
Having Hope
• Believed in a better life for their
children
• Hoped for reunification with children
Ana
“I would like for people to know how incredibly difficult
it is for us to separate ourselves from our children.
We do it so they can have opportunities and hope
for a better life.”
Theme #3
Choosing to Walk Away from
Poverty
• Made difficult decisions
• Had the courage to leave their
country, family and children
Maria,
“I knew that when I made that decision it was
going to be hard, and that I was going to suffer.
I knew that when people told me that I could
bring them, it was not going to be easy. One
knows that is not going to be soon. One knows
when one makes that decision how much one
will suffer.”
Theme #4
Suffering Through the Trip Here
• Feared the dangers of a grueling
journey
• Endured thirst, hunger &
unbearable conditions
• Harsh treatment and violence
Beatriz
“After breaking my foot I was in so much
pain…I cried at night ... my friend would say
‘Beatriz don’t cry, think of your children –you
are fighting for your children.’ So, every time I
looked up those mountains I thought –
MY CHILDREN!
MY CHILDREN!”
Theme #5
Mothering from Afar
• Enduring the pain of separating from their
children
• Sadness-agony
• Worry about their children’s safety
• Keep in contact- “mothering”
• Provide for children and family
• Send remittances
• Live and suffer hardship
Consuelo,
“I can go back any time …at any moment …but I know
that if I go back no one eats.”
Theme #6
Valuing Family
• Negotiate family role changes
• Endure family conflict
• Feel gratitude for family support
• Missing their family
Rosario,
“Being here I feel good and bad…over there I have all
my family…all the people that I love.
Theme #7
Changing Personally
• Forming a new family
• Adopting new cultural traditions
• Finding new meaning in faith
• Becoming independent, stronger, more
assertive
• Living hope
Margarita,
“ …I am very different here. When I was in Mexico I
thought you had to obey to everything everyone tells
you to do…but now I don’t think that anymore.”
Latinas experiencing transnational
motherhood find meaning in mothering
from afar through embodied sacrifice,
suffering, and hopefulness of a better life
for their children and for family
reunification.
“I am willing to sacrifice…the love of a
mother is to sacrifice, and even though I
have them far away, and my heart is in
pieces, I know that they can eat… so we
sacrifice.”
Beatriz
In this study, the experiences of Latina
transnational mothers revealed a need for
reflection on their human condition and
account for their needs in health care,
education, research and policy
development.
Their plight can be alleviated by giving
voice to their silence and advocating to
reduce the inequalities that afflict them.
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards