By: Bryan Carter Nathan Rinehouse Kristen Boyle Callie Grey Book 10 Summary The Latins continue their siege on the Trojan fortress. From Mount Olympus, Jupiter sees the chaos erupting in Italy. He expected the Trojans to settle there peacefully, but the Latins won’t let them. Jupiter meets with Venus and Juno to discuss the situation. Venus blames Juno for the suffering of the Trojans, but Juno replies that it was fate that brought him here, not herself. Jupiter gets annoyed, and declares that he will stay neutral in the matter. He will let the strength of mortals decide the victor. Aeneas has been away from the fight, and is on his way back to help. King Tarchon comes to the aid of the Trojans by providing them with a fleet of ships and a number of competent warriors. Aeneas kills several Latins and starts to gain the upper hand. The battle is a stalemate as of now, with Pallas leading them. Summary (con’t) Pallas’ progress attracts the attention of Turnus. Turnus challenges Pallas to a duel, and he accepts. They throw spears at each other, and Turnus ends up killing Pallas. In disrespect, Turnus rips off Pallas’ belt as a prize. This is a parallel to The Iliad when Hector steals Patroclos’ armor. Aeneas sees this and slaughters every Latin he sees. Juno sees that the battle is being lost, and begs Jupiter to spare Turnus’ life. There’s not much time left for him because Aeneas is coming after him. Jupiter refuses, so Juno goes down to the battlefield, and creates a phantom Aeneas. Fooled, Turnus follows him onboard a ship. The phantom vanishes, and Juno sets the ship onto open water before he can get off. Turnus floats far down the coast, safe, but helpless to do anything, and useless to his army. Mezentius, a great Latin warrior, emerges, and kills many Trojans, but nearly stops when he sees his son, Lausus, killed by Aeneas. Mezentius tosses several spears at Aeneas, but his grand armor holds out. Aeneas kills Mezentius, marking the descent of the Latins’ strength and momentum. God Interventions/Quarrels While Aeneas was on his ship, Cymodoce and her fellow sea-nymphs came to warn Aeneas to prepare for battle and get his men armed at dawn. She also informed him of what happened while he was away. Jupiter allows Juno to save Turnus because Venus has been helping Aeneas the whole time. Juno creates a phantom Aeneas that Turnus follows to a ship. With Turnus onboard the ship, the phantom disappears, and Juno severs the moorings before Turnus can escape. Venus accuses Juno for the hardships the Trojans are facing. Furious, Juno argues back defending herself. Most Significant Event We believe that the most significant event is when Jupiter ends the argument between Juno and Venus by deciding to stay neutral in the battle. Jupiter is choosing not to partake in the affairs of the mortals. This lets the mortals’ strength, wit, and strategy decide who will win. The gods are not choosing sides and are now letting the strongest army win. Quotes Mezentius to Aeneas: “This said, the Trojan moves against Mezentius with lance and menace. But Mezentius answers: ‘You, savage one, why try to frighten me now that my son is torn away? That was the only way to ruin me. For I do not fear death or care for any gods.’” Mezentius to Aeneas: “Why do you taunt and threaten me? There is no crime in killing me; I did not come to war with any thought of quarter, nor did Lausus ever draw such terms with you. I ask you only this: if any grace is given to the vanquished, let my body be laid in earth.” Pallas to Arcadian troops (allied with Aeneas): “Look! With its whole great barrier the sea is hemming us in-and where is there land open for our retreat? There is none. Troy or the sea? Which shall we seek, my friends?” Character Analysis Aeneas: Still protagonist His mission has gone from trying to get to Italy to trying to establish a city Goes on a killing spree out of rage Pallas: A young Arcadian warrior Good friend to Aeneas Turnus: Antagonist Leader of Latin forces Clausus and Lausus: Latin warriors Mezentius: A great Latin warrior Foil to Aeneas Father of Lausus Figurative Language “Arcadian hearts went cold, their blood froze.” - Hyperbole “Well driven through the bronze joints of his shield and through his tunic rough with scales of gold, the Dardan’s blade drinks blood from his split side.” -Personification “The stern whose ship gleamed with a gilded Apollo.” -Alliteration “…all the immortals murmured assent to one or other party, a sound like the first rustles deep down in the forest,…” - Simile “[…]far famed for his horses[…]” -Alliteration Foreshadowing “Both wife and sister to me, and much loved, as you supposed (your judgment is not wrong), the power of Troy has been sustained by Venus, not by the fighting men’s keen hands in battle, not by their stubborn souls, patient in trials.” Jupiter prophesizes to Juno that the Trojans will win. On the defensive, Juno tries to get Turnus out of the war. “In its due course shall come the time for battle-hasten it not-the time when violent Carthage shall force the passes of the Alps and wreak appalling havoc among the Roman strongholds.” Foreshadows how Carthage will go to war with Rome, and how the Carthaginian soldiers will have to go through the Alps mountains to get to Rome. Foreshadowing (Con’t) “Whoever you are, my victor, your rejoicing shall not last long: I shall not lie for long before vengeance comes: as dire a fate as mine is on the watch for you and soon you will lie on this same field.” Orodes tells Mezentius not to celebrate his victory for long because soon he will die in battle also. “…and Turnus, too, is summoned to his fate; he has reached the end of his allotted years.” Jupiter comforts Hercules by telling him that no man can escape fate, even Turnus will soon die. Epic Conventions Epithets: Master of Fire-Vulcan Gracious Mother of Gods, Mistress of Ida-Juno Father of Gods, King of men-Jupiter Speeches: Many speeches throughout the book, spoken by Pallas and Turnus to rally their troops Venus and Juno each give a speech to Jupiter Cataloguing: All of the army ships following Aeneas back to fight Virgil calls upon a muse Motif: Breast-Has been noted in the book throughout, and prominent in Book 10 Symbols Fire (Book 10 specifically): Destruction Breast Symbolic of man’s struggle of man against those who oppose him Could also be symbolic of the soul or heart in a figurative sense Aeneas: Rage and Vengeance Sea Retreat The Aeneid vs. The Iliad The armor and shield of Aeneas: Reflects the armor and shield of Achilles. Both were made by the same god, save their lives, and reflect each of their personalities. Both armies fail to defend their homeland. The Latins fail to defend Italy in The Aeneid, and the Trojans fail to defend Troy in The Iliad. Pallas, compared to Patroclos: Pallas takes charge in Aeneas’ absence, and makes a difference in the tide of battle, similar to Patroclos in The Iliad. He is killed by Turnus, the way Patroclos was killed by Hector After killing Pallas, Turnus tears off his war belt. In The Iliad, Hector strips Patroclos of his armor. In both books, the death of their best friends evokes an anger in both Achilles and Aeneas. Class Discussion Do you believe in karma, when someone gets what they deserve? In The Aeneid, Turnus kills Pallas and takes his belt as a prize, showing he was full of arrogance. This fills Aeneas with intense rage and the Trojans end up winning the battle. Can you relate to a situation of karma you have experienced?