book 10

By: Bryan Carter
Nathan Rinehouse
Kristen Boyle
Callie Grey
Book 10 Summary
 The Latins continue their siege on the Trojan fortress. From Mount
Olympus, Jupiter sees the chaos erupting in Italy. He expected the
Trojans to settle there peacefully, but the Latins won’t let them. Jupiter
meets with Venus and Juno to discuss the situation. Venus blames Juno
for the suffering of the Trojans, but Juno replies that it was fate that
brought him here, not herself. Jupiter gets annoyed, and declares that
he will stay neutral in the matter. He will let the strength of mortals
decide the victor.
 Aeneas has been away from the fight, and is on his way back to help.
King Tarchon comes to the aid of the Trojans by providing them with a
fleet of ships and a number of competent warriors. Aeneas kills several
Latins and starts to gain the upper hand. The battle is a stalemate as of
now, with Pallas leading them.
Summary (con’t)
 Pallas’ progress attracts the attention of Turnus. Turnus challenges Pallas to a
duel, and he accepts. They throw spears at each other, and Turnus ends up
killing Pallas. In disrespect, Turnus rips off Pallas’ belt as a prize. This is a
parallel to The Iliad when Hector steals Patroclos’ armor. Aeneas sees this and
slaughters every Latin he sees.
 Juno sees that the battle is being lost, and begs Jupiter to spare Turnus’ life.
There’s not much time left for him because Aeneas is coming after him. Jupiter
refuses, so Juno goes down to the battlefield, and creates a phantom Aeneas.
Fooled, Turnus follows him onboard a ship. The phantom vanishes, and Juno
sets the ship onto open water before he can get off. Turnus floats far down the
coast, safe, but helpless to do anything, and useless to his army.
 Mezentius, a great Latin warrior, emerges, and kills many Trojans, but nearly
stops when he sees his son, Lausus, killed by Aeneas. Mezentius tosses several
spears at Aeneas, but his grand armor holds out. Aeneas kills Mezentius,
marking the descent of the Latins’ strength and momentum.
God Interventions/Quarrels
 While Aeneas was on his ship, Cymodoce and her
fellow sea-nymphs came to warn Aeneas to prepare for
battle and get his men armed at dawn. She also
informed him of what happened while he was away.
 Jupiter allows Juno to save Turnus because Venus has
been helping Aeneas the whole time. Juno creates a
phantom Aeneas that Turnus follows to a ship. With
Turnus onboard the ship, the phantom disappears, and
Juno severs the moorings before Turnus can escape.
 Venus accuses Juno for the hardships the Trojans are
facing. Furious, Juno argues back defending herself.
Most Significant Event
 We believe that the most significant event is when
Jupiter ends the argument between Juno and Venus by
deciding to stay neutral in the battle. Jupiter is
choosing not to partake in the affairs of the mortals.
This lets the mortals’ strength, wit, and strategy decide
who will win. The gods are not choosing sides and are
now letting the strongest army win.
Mezentius to Aeneas:
“This said, the Trojan moves against Mezentius with lance and
menace. But Mezentius answers: ‘You, savage one, why try to
frighten me now that my son is torn away? That was the only
way to ruin me. For I do not fear death or care for any gods.’”
Mezentius to Aeneas:
“Why do you taunt and threaten me? There is no crime in killing
me; I did not come to war with any thought of quarter, nor did
Lausus ever draw such terms with you. I ask you only this: if any
grace is given to the vanquished, let my body be laid in earth.”
Pallas to Arcadian troops (allied with Aeneas):
“Look! With its whole great barrier the sea is hemming us in-and
where is there land open for our retreat? There is none. Troy or
the sea? Which shall we seek, my friends?”
Character Analysis
 Aeneas:
 Still protagonist
 His mission has gone from trying to get to Italy to trying to establish a city
 Goes on a killing spree out of rage
 Pallas:
 A young Arcadian warrior
 Good friend to Aeneas
 Turnus:
 Antagonist
 Leader of Latin forces
 Clausus and Lausus:
 Latin warriors
 Mezentius:
 A great Latin warrior
 Foil to Aeneas
 Father of Lausus
Figurative Language
“Arcadian hearts went cold,
their blood froze.”
- Hyperbole
“Well driven through the bronze joints of his shield and through his tunic
rough with scales of gold, the Dardan’s blade drinks blood from his split
“The stern whose ship gleamed with a gilded Apollo.”
“…all the immortals murmured assent to one or other party, a sound like
the first rustles deep down in the forest,…”
- Simile
“[…]far famed for his horses[…]”
 “Both wife and sister to me, and much loved, as you supposed
(your judgment is not wrong), the power of Troy has been
sustained by Venus, not by the fighting men’s keen hands in
battle, not by their stubborn souls, patient in trials.”
 Jupiter prophesizes to Juno that the Trojans will win. On the
defensive, Juno tries to get Turnus out of the war.
 “In its due course shall come the time for battle-hasten it not-the
time when violent Carthage shall force the passes of the Alps and
wreak appalling havoc among the Roman strongholds.”
 Foreshadows how Carthage will go to war with Rome, and how
the Carthaginian soldiers will have to go through the Alps
mountains to get to Rome.
Foreshadowing (Con’t)
 “Whoever you are, my victor, your rejoicing shall not
last long: I shall not lie for long before vengeance
comes: as dire a fate as mine is on the watch for you
and soon you will lie on this same field.”
 Orodes tells Mezentius not to celebrate his victory for
long because soon he will die in battle also.
 “…and Turnus, too, is summoned to his fate; he has
reached the end of his allotted years.”
 Jupiter comforts Hercules by telling him that no man
can escape fate, even Turnus will soon die.
Epic Conventions
 Epithets:
 Master of Fire-Vulcan
 Gracious Mother of Gods, Mistress of Ida-Juno
 Father of Gods, King of men-Jupiter
 Speeches:
 Many speeches throughout the book, spoken by Pallas and Turnus
to rally their troops
 Venus and Juno each give a speech to Jupiter
 Cataloguing: All of the army ships following Aeneas back to
 Virgil calls upon a muse
 Motif:
 Breast-Has been noted in the book throughout, and prominent in
Book 10
 Fire (Book 10 specifically):
 Destruction
 Breast
 Symbolic of man’s struggle of man against those who
oppose him
 Could also be symbolic of the soul or heart in a
figurative sense
 Aeneas:
 Rage and Vengeance
 Sea
 Retreat
The Aeneid vs. The Iliad
 The armor and shield of Aeneas:
 Reflects the armor and shield of Achilles.
 Both were made by the same god, save their lives, and reflect each of their
 Both armies fail to defend their homeland.
 The Latins fail to defend Italy in The Aeneid, and the Trojans fail to defend
Troy in The Iliad.
 Pallas, compared to Patroclos:
Pallas takes charge in Aeneas’ absence, and makes a difference in the tide of
battle, similar to Patroclos in The Iliad.
 He is killed by Turnus, the way Patroclos was killed by Hector
 After killing Pallas, Turnus tears off his war belt. In The Iliad, Hector strips
Patroclos of his armor.
 In both books, the death of their best friends evokes an anger in both
Achilles and Aeneas.
Class Discussion
 Do you believe in karma, when someone gets what
they deserve? In The Aeneid, Turnus kills Pallas and
takes his belt as a prize, showing he was full of
arrogance. This fills Aeneas with intense rage and the
Trojans end up winning the battle. Can you relate to a
situation of karma you have experienced?
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