Latin America after WWII - University High World History

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Latin America: Revolution and
Reaction into the 21st Century
World Civilizations 4th ed.
Chapter 33
1914 to Present
Latin America After World War II
 End of World War II saw stronger
economies
 Cold War inspires Marxist
revolutionary agitation
 Despite Coup, Peronism remains
popular
Mexico and the PRI
 Stability of PRI undercut by corruption
and lack of social improvement
 In 1995, Zapatista guerilla movement
 Government negotiates NAFTA
 Vicente Fox of the PAN party is
elected - promises to end corruption
and improve working conditions
Vicente Fox
Zapatistas
Radical Options in the 1950s
 Radical unrest in several smaller
countries
 Mexico - increasingly conservative
 Venezuela and Costa Rica - reform
minded democrats in open elections
 New post World War II revolutionaries
look to Marxism as a guide
 Government interest in order, not
reform
Radical Options in the 1950s
 Cold War ideological battle between
Soviet Bloc and the West makes
Socialist path dangerous
 Failures of political democratization,
economic development, and social
reform throughout Latin America
 Economy based solely on export
crops
Guatemala: Reform and United
States Intervention
 Middle-class/labor elected Arevalo
starts “spiritual socialism”. Fights
foreign interests (UFC)
 United States fears communist
takeover, organizes military takeover
of Guatemala
 U.S.-friendly government reverses
change
The Cuban Revolution: Socialism in
the Caribbean
 Cuba has large middle class, high
literacy and health care levels
 Batista’s reforms marred by corruption
 Castro meets Ernesto “Che” Guevera,
gathers military forces, gains strength
 “26th July Movement” gains support
 U.S. hostility, Soviet Union support,
missile crisis, economic change fails
Fidel Castro
Ernesto “Che” Guevera
The Search for Reform and the
Military Option
 Programs based in Catholic, Marxist,
and capitalist doctrines seek solutions
 Liberation theology combines Catholic
theology and socialist principles to
seek social justice
 Stress social equality as a form of
personal salvation
 Changing stance of church in Latin
America provokes violence
Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take
Power
 Success of Cuban Revolution worried
opponents of communist revolutionary
change
 Military forces had been involved in
politics since caudillos in 19th century
 Professionalized military began to see
themselves as above selfish interests
of political parties
Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take
Power
 Military establishments intervene
directly in politics, fearing leftist shift
 1964 - Brazilian military (with U.S.
support) overthrows elected president
who promised sweeping reforms
 1973 - Chilean military overthrows
Allende’s socialist government
 Soldiers in power establish economic
stability; place nationalist interest first
Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take
Power
 Policies formulated and applied by
military styled bureaucracy
 Goal of government was
development; burden falls heaviest on
working class
 Industrialization increased, social
situations stagnant
 Peruvian reform policies successful
The New Democratic Trends
 By the mid-1980s, government was
returning to civilian politicians
 Reduced threat of Cuban style
communism
 End of Cold War ends U.S. support
for repressive anticommunist regimes
 Shining Path, a leftist guerilla
movement, interrupted Peruvian
elections
The New Democratic Trends
 A return of electoral democracy
becomes widespread in Latin America
 U.S. reaffirms its power in the region
with capture of Noriega
 Large foreign loans for development
created huge debt, which caused
inflation
 Drug trade creates powerful cartels
Manuel Noriega
The United States and Latin
America: Continuing Presence
 After World War I, U.S. was
predominant power in the hemisphere
 Economies of Latin American
countries closely tied to the United
States
 Banana Republics - friendly
dictatorships
 Foreign interventions lead to growing
nationalist reactions
The United States and Latin
America: Continuing Presence
 Roosevelt introduces the Good
Neighbor policy, promised to deal
fairly
 Cold War leads to changing U.S.
strategy for Latin America
 United States stemmed socialist
spread by supporting democratic or
anticommunist governments.
The United States and Latin
America: Continuing Presence
 Alliance for Progress aimed to
develop regions economically
 1970-80’s: pragmatic U.S. policy
 U.S. agreed to cede the Panama
Canal to Panama
Societies in Search of Change
 Social relations changed slowly,
women granted more rights
 Politicians and artists tried to identify
and confront persistent problems
 Social, racial, and gender relations
changed slowly
 Indians still looked down upon, but
they are a recognized part of the Latin
American culture
Slow Change in Women’s
Roles
 Most Latin American women gained
suffrage in the 1940’s and 50’s
 Latin American nations also feel the
pressure of feminist organizations, as
well as the international community
 Greater equality for women by 1990s.
The Movement of People
 High fertility and low mortality rates in
the latter half of the century caused a
population boom in Latin America
 Major trend was immigration to Latin
 Urban migration plays a large role
 Huge urban centers in Mexico City,
Sao Paulo, and Buenos Aires
The Movement of People
 Lack of jobs for the new onslaught of
urbanization, shantytowns for housing
 Horrible living conditions in favelas
 Percentage of urban population is
greatest of developing countries
Mexico City
Cultural Reflections of Despair and
Hope
 Latin America remains amalgamation
of cultures and peoples
 Catholicism is still dominant
 Struggle for social justice, economic
security, and successful political
formulas is an inspiration for artistic
creativity
Global Connections: Struggling
Toward the Future in a Global
Economy
 Latin America still searches and
struggles for economic growth, social
justice, and political stability
 The world economy has allowed Latin
America to grow economically
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