Standard 10.1 Review - Valley View High School

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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 1: The Greek Roots of Democracy
The Rise of Greek City-States
Mountains and sea separated Greek city-states, which
remained fiercely independent. Greeks began to set up
colonies all around the Mediterranean by 750 B.C.
The Greeks designed each large city-state, or polis, with an
acropolis for temples and a lower walled city for homes, a
market, and public buildings. Different forms of government
evolved over time, from monarchy, to aristocracy, and in
some places oligarchy.
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 1: The Greek Roots of Democracy
The Greek Philosophers
Greek philosophers tried to discover universal truths. These
truths would hopefully lead to better government and proper
ethics. Among the most influential philosophers were
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
What did the Greek Philosophers focus most of their
attention on?
What form of government is it when all citizens participate
without representatives?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition: Section 1
Note Taking Transparency 49
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition: Section 1
Color Transparency 1: The Key Ideas of Plato
What does Plato say that
rulers should be/have?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition: Section 1
Color Transparency 2: The Key Ideas of Aristotle
How should people
examine the world around
them?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 2: The Roman Republic and Empire
From Republic to Empire
Political leaders and the senate fought civil wars in Rome,
and the empire came to rely on paid soldiers who were loyal
to their commanders over the state. Julius Caesar became
dictator and was killed in 44 B.C., which brought on more
civil wars.
Octavian became emperor in 31 B.C. and took the title of
Augustus. He created a civil service to enforce laws and
imposed a fairer tax system. He ushered in the pax
Romana, which was a 200-year period of peace.
What was the Roman government called?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 2: The Roman Republic and Empire
Roman Law
Roman laws united the empire. Civil law and the law of
nations were merged to apply to everyone in the empire.
Many Roman principles of law are still practiced today.
How is voting done in a Republic?
What government today closely follows the government of
Ancient Rome?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition: Section 2
Color Transparency 4: The Key Principals of Roman Law
In what way are today’s
laws influenced by
Roman law?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 3: Principles of Judaism
The Ancient Israelites
According to the Torah, Abraham migrated with his family
westward from Mesopotamia to Canaan. There, near the
eastern Mediterranean coast, Abraham founded the Israelite
nation.
God’s Covenant with the Israelites
The Israelites were monotheistic, meaning they believed in one
God. They believed God would protect and provide for them as
long as they followed God’s laws.
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 3: Principles of Judaism
Teachings on Law and Morality
The Torah established moral principles and set out laws,
including The Ten Commandments that became part of the
cultural foundation of Western civilization.
The Scattering of the Jews
Not all Jews held during the Babylonian Captivity returned to
Judea. Some remained in Babylon and some migrated to other
parts of the Middle East and Mediterranean.
Who was seen as more important, individuals or the group as a
whole?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition: Section 3
Note Taking Transparency 51
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 4: The Rise of Christianity
Jesus of Nazareth
According to the Gospels, Jesus began preaching and
performing miracles of healing in the provinces of Galilee
and Judea on the eastern Mediterranean. Jesus’ message
echoed the Jewish ideas of mercy and sympathy for the
poor. Some followers believed he was the Son of God, Out of
fear of rebellion, the Romans crucified him.
Unlike other religions practiced in Rome, what type of
religion were Christianity and Judaism?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 4: The Rise of Christianity
Christianity Spreads
Jesus’ followers spread Christianity, first among the Jews of
Judea and then through the Roman world. Paul was the
most influential among them. The emperor Theodosius made
Christianity Rome’s official religion.
What is the written code of morals used by both Judaism and
Christianity?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 4: The Rise of Christianity
The Christian Church
Gradually scattered Christian communities organized a
structured church hierarchy. The bishops of the important
cities became powerful in the Church, with the bishop of
Rome serving as the pope. During the Middle Ages, the
Roman Catholic Church became a powerful spiritual and
secular force in Western Europe.
What did the monks do that allowed us to rediscover Ancient
Greece and Ancient Rome?
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Sources of the Democratic Tradition
Section 4: The Rise of Christianity
The Judeo-Christian Tradition
Both the Jewish and Christian faiths are major world religions
today. The ethical and moral principles set forth by both
religions played an important role in the development of the
democratic tradition.
What are some of the contributions these religions have
made to modern Western Civilization?
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