City Of Bothell Fire and E.M.S. As Instructors, We want you to be the best drivers possible !!! Driving Test Failed Driving emergency apparatus is high risk and high frequency !! Don’t let this happen to you = US !! Wear Your Seatbelt We serve to save lives not take them away. Your responsibility as drivers could not be greater!!!! Fire truck hits van. Kills 2, injures 4 E.V.I.P. Refresher Introduction The goal of this training is for us to prevent vehicle incidents from occurring Required to maintain E.V.I.P certification Instructed by our Department’s State Certified Instructors Review of the “important stuff” out of each lesson covered in the initial E.V.I.P. training Review of Department specific information Summary Incident vs. Accident The word accident implies that motor vehicle incidents are not preventable, it is quite the contrary. Almost all motor vehicle incidents are preventable and someone is almost always at fault. It is incumbent on all emergency vehicle operators to learn to be safe drivers and practice safe driving habits while operating apparatus. Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention Protect Yourself Your Fellow Firefighters Your Community By learning to drive Safely !!!!!!! Lesson One Some Legal Aspects of Emergency Vehicle Operations Apparatus Incident Facts Over 1300 workers are killed in traffic related incidents each year. On average about 20 Firefighters are killed annually responding to/or returning from alarms. In 1999, six firefighters were killed when they were ejected from a fire apparatus. (Wear your seatbelt at all times!!) EVIP = Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention We are in the business of responding to traffic incidents to help. We should be especially mindful of preventing traffic incidents. We have a great deal of responsibility and liability as firefighters to drive and reach our destination safely. Three Principles of Emergency Vehicle Operation: Emergency vehicle operators are subject to all traffic regulations unless a specific exemption is made. 2. Exemptions are legal only in the emergency mode. 3. Even with an exemption, the operator can be found criminally or civilly liable if involved in a traffic incident. 1. The Law Applies To Me While there are laws on the books which allow us to operate emergency vehicles and give us some freedom of action the general public does not have, there are also in each section “catch phrases” which place the ultimate liability on our shoulders. So essentially, the traffic laws as written apply to each and every one of us, emergency responder or not. The BIG PRINT gives it to you: While responding to an alarm, you may: Park or stand your vehicle irrespective of all other laws to the contrary. Proceed past red lights and stop signs. Exceed the maximum speed limits. Disregard regulations governing the direction of movement of traffic or turning in specific directions regardless of posted signs or regulations to the contrary. The provisions granted emergency vehicles “shall not relieve the driver. . . from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons, nor shall such provisions protect the driver from the consequences of his reckless disregard for the safety of others.” RCW 46.61.035 A True Emergency Drivers of emergency vehicles will greatly reduce the chances of being found guilty of negligence if they are reasonably certain that a situation represents a true emergency before exercising the exemptions granted in the state statutes. Is This a True Emergency? ASK, Is there a high probability that this situation could cause death or serious injury to an individual? Is there significant property imperiled? Could action on my part reduce the seriousness of the situation? You have to arrive at the true emergency to make a difference! Driving too fast for conditions and or taking chances is unacceptable!! Furthermore Besides RCWs and WAC’s we are also bound by: Local ordinances Department policy • Courts apportion blame if you should be driving an emergency vehicle when involved in a wreck. • They look at the case and determine who and what contributed to the incident. They assign a percentage of blame to each party. For example: They may say that the “other” driver was 40% to blame; the Fire Department 40% to blame; and the emergency vehicle operator 20% to blame. They look at the dollar award and assign the percentages accordingly. Other Drive r 40% Fire Dept. 40% YOU 20% If the “other” driver is asking for $1,000,000 in damages for alleged harm due to an incident with an emergency vehicle, the award would be as follows: “Other” driver, 40% = No award. Fire department, 40% = $400,000 Emergency vehicle driver (YOU, PERSONALLY), 20% = $200,000 Summary Drive with “Due Regard” because you will be held responsible for your actions while operating an emergency vehicle!! Not driving safely, could be the biggest mistake you ever make. Affecting you, your family, your crew and the Department. Emergency driving is the highest risk we routinely face while on duty. Do not underestimate its importance and the possible consequences associated with an incident!! Lesson Two Concepts of Defensive Driving: A Matter of Attitude Drivers Ed Coaching Tip Mental Motivation Defensive driving is largely a matter of attitude. Understanding how your mental state effects your driving is critical to becoming a safe driver. Routine (driving in the same area every day) can cause us to become inattentive. Don’t become complacent with emergency driving. You never know where or when something bad might happen !!! The Five Components of the Driving Process Scan Identify Predict Decide Execute S.I.P.D.E Driver Failure Types of Driver Failure Carelessness Incompetence Recklessness Inattentiveness Inability to judge distances Slow reaction of drivers A Defensive Driver Expects and makes allowances for the mistakes of others. Keeps alert, adjusts driving to meet all hazards of weather, road, and traffic conditions. Avoids bad habits. Avoids following too closely. A fire department driver must maintain a safe driving attitude Regardless of the contributing factors which may tend to influence him/her. Drivers with poor attitudes usually make excuses for mistakes that cause property damage or injury. Lesson Three Important Physical Forces Don’t underestimate the power of physical forces! Painful Boat Crash Vehicle Control While driving, an operator can only control a vehicle’s velocity (speed) and direction. How does this engine driver do? How Not to Drive a Fire Truck Several physical forces influence the amount of control the operator has: If the limits created by the physical force are not exceeded, the operator can fully control both the emergency vehicle’s velocity and direction. If they are exceeded, control will be lost. This is worth seeing again – a perfect example of exceeding physical forces !! Tiller Accident You can exceed the physical limits and lose control by Driving too fast for conditions. Braking inappropriately. Changing direction too abruptly. Tracking a curve at too high a speed. Brake Fade Brake fade is caused by overheating. Sustained hard braking heats up the brakes. The brake pedal becomes harder to apply. Then the brakes can fail entirely. Emergency Braking - Hydraulic Brakes Apply hard pressure to the brake pedal without locking the wheels. When pavement is dry - quick firm jabs on the pedal When roadway is slippery - short, steady pressure; release and repeat (Tires must roll in order for a driver to control a vehicle’s direction) Emergency Braking - Air Brakes Apply a steady pressure. Do not fan air brakes - except on slippery pavement. Fanning brakes wastes air pressure and contributes to brake fade due to excessive heat buildup. Momentum and inertia affect vehicle control. With increased momentum, that is, as speed increases or a bigger vehicle is involved, Stopping distance increases. Brakes must work harder; friction and heat increase. Inertia will be harder to overcome. Therefore, changing direction is more difficult. The track the vehicle will follow must be wider. Lesson Four Driving Conditions and Contingencies What is a Driving Contingency? “A chance, collision, or possibility conditional on something uncertain” Examples: Traffic suddenly and abruptly stopping Ice on the roadway Out of control vehicle A longer reaction time will help you avoid a collision when a driving contingency occurs Prepare for Contingency Situations Primary causes of contingency situations: Vehicle malfunctions or failures A sudden change or deterioration in the roadway The appearance of an obstacle in the roadway Driver error Precautions for Contingencies Attempt to head off driver error. Begin shift well rested and w/out personal stress. Remain alert. Avoid unnecessary risks !!!!!!!!!!!!!! Handling Contingencies-Evasive Steering Maneuvers Driver’s hands should be on the steering wheel at the 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock positions. This allows the largest possible turn without moving the hands. Turn the steering wheel in the direction of escape route. Counter steer as soon as vehicle is clear of obstacle. Avoid hard braking--hard braking can lock the wheels, and locked wheels won’t steer. Handling Contingencies-Unavoidable Collisions Choose the object you will collide with. Choose the course least likely to cause injury or death. Avoid head-on collisions--these are the most damaging to life and property. Steer to cause your vehicle to sideswipe or hit the other object at an angle. Lesson Five Operating Apparatus: Vehicle Control Tasks To Review Lights and sirens are used to inform traffic and pedestrians of an emergency vehicle’s presence and thus, to aid in clearing a path for the emergency vehicle. Per the law, they both should be on at all times while driving in the emergency mode. If you choose to turn the siren off at anytime, you must still operate with due regard for the safety of others. If you fail to do so, you may be held liable. Sirens - Limitations on Effectiveness Siren sounds do not travel well around buildings or corners. (the intersection of NE 185th and SR527) A study has shown that existing sirens are effective only to vehicles traveling in the same direction ahead of the emergency vehicle and to pedestrians. Even at fairly close range, the siren may not be heard by motorists with windows up, air conditioning on, or radio on. Motorists’ Reactions to Lights and Sirens Has steadily gotten worse. Often, they don’t want to stop or pull over for us anymore. (they will even race us) It’s very easy to get frustrated. Don’t let it affect your driving. You should always pass on the left, whenever possible. If you must pass on the right, do so with extreme caution. If an incident occurs, you may be held liable. Negotiating Intersections The majority of emergency apparatus incidents occur at intersections !!! Use extreme caution !!!!!!!!!!!!! Intersections are the most likely areas for fatal incidents. Before crossing an intersection, you must make sure that you have gained and then maintain complete control of all lanes of traffic. Never blow through a red light or stop sign. Stop or slow down enough to where you could stop if necessary. Don’t forget to announce your approach to an intersection, where you think responding apparatus might meet. Intersections are dangerous You must gain control before proceeding through!! Fire Truck Crash Incidents, Near Misses ??? Please share your stories of incidents, any near misses and or close calls that you have experienced in your career as a driver or a passenger. We can discuss and learn a great deal from You !! Please Share !!!!!!!!!!!! Backing Up A majority of our incidents have occurred while backing up! Backing-up mishaps account for a large proportion of emergency vehicle incidents. Park so backing is minimized or eliminated. When the vehicle must be backed: Crew members shall be stationed in such a position as to assist the driver. At night, use backup or rear-deck lights to illuminate the rear area behind the vehicle. Back up person should use appropriate hand signals. You MUST have a back up person! Traffic Safety Protecting People While Stabilizing The Incident Provides reasonably safe and efficient movement of traffic. Reasonably protects workers, responders to traffic incidents, and their equipment. We must establish a control zone early in the incident. • We have had an Aid Car hit, while on the shoulder of I405 and we have experienced several close calls. • A South King Fire and Rescue Firefighter was critically injured after being hit on I-5 in November of 2011. • WE MUST BE EXREMLY CAREFUL ON THESE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS !!!! Components of a TTC Zone 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Advance Warning Area Transition Area Activity Area Buffer Space Termination Area Placement of Traffic Control Devices Right Wrong Placement of Apparatus Physical protection barrier to secondary collisions Protection of the pump operator Protection of the crews Protection of the citizens Placement of Apparatus Fire engines and other large apparatus Park at a 45 degree angle Exposes more surface area to absorb an impact from an errant vehicle Provides a “wall” of protection Placement of Apparatus Transport vehicles Downstream: Parallel with traffic Ease of loading gurney into vehicle Clear access to roadway when leaving for transport Placement of Apparatus When the fire engine is to be staffed with a pump operator/engineer Park at a 45 degree angle with the pump panel (drivers side) facing the Activity Area Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Common misconception: The more warning lights that are flashing, the better we can be seen Night Time Visibility At the incident scene The reality is: The warning lights can be seen very well Drivers get “drawn in” to the lights Personnel visibility is reduced when they are overcome by excessive emergency lights Night Time Visibility At the incident scene Turn off all unnecessary headlights when parked at the scene Lesson 7 Apparatus Inspections “Very Important” The Daily Inspection Primary Check overall condition of vehicle. Check underneath for leaking fluids. Check tires, oil level, primer fluid, seat belts, adjust driver’s seat and mirrors. Secondary Start apparatus and allow to warm up. Check all gauges, exterior lighting, sirens, horns, windows, water tank level. Check all equipment, ladders, ropes, SCBAs, aid kits, oxygen, suction units, stretchers, mileage. Initial the inspection sheet. Will be used in court !! The Weekly Inspection • Bleed air tanks. • Check undercarriage, transmission oil, water lines, windshield wipers, tires, batteries, ground ladders, portable equipment, SCBAs, first aid supplies, oxygen. • Operate engine and pump. • Initial the inspection sheet. Will be used in court !! Department Specific Information By State law, you are required to have your Drivers License with you at all times when you drive any vehicle on public roadways. It is preferred, that you have your current Drivers License with you while driving Department vehicles. At a minimum, you must have a copy of your current Drivers License with you while driving. The best place to keep it is in your bunker gear. It will be checked twice a year, during the EVIP Rodeo and Road Course. Department Information Cont. We have had numerous incidents involving apparatus and apparatus bay doors. It has cost the Department $$$$$$. Please review the operation of the bay door sensors at each Station. They all operate differently. At 45, they are on a 3 minute timer. It is on a timer only, that will not reset when you trigger the eye. If the eye is blocked, the door will not come down. But , if your timing is just right, the Engine can strike the door before it has a chance to trigger the eye. Be careful!! What about 42 and 44 ? Emergency Vehicle Incident Prevention Summary There is a lot to know about the operation of emergency vehicles. There is too much liability involved not to know as much as we can. We must each do our part to protect the public and our co-workers. Summary Be mentally ready to drive Remember “Due Regard” Your responsible for your actions when you are behind the wheel! DRIVE SAFELY!! Thank you!