EVIP PowerPoint - Bothellfire.org

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City Of Bothell Fire and E.M.S.
As Instructors, We want you to be
the best drivers possible !!!
Driving Test Failed
Driving emergency apparatus is high
risk and high frequency !! Don’t let this
happen to you = US !!
Wear Your Seatbelt
We serve to save lives not take them
away. Your responsibility as drivers
could not be greater!!!!
Fire truck hits van. Kills 2, injures 4
E.V.I.P. Refresher Introduction
The goal of this training is for us to prevent
vehicle incidents from occurring
 Required to maintain E.V.I.P certification
 Instructed by our Department’s State Certified
Instructors
 Review of the “important stuff” out of each
lesson covered in the initial E.V.I.P. training
 Review of Department specific information
 Summary

Incident vs. Accident

The word accident implies that motor vehicle
incidents are not preventable, it is quite the
contrary. Almost all motor vehicle incidents
are preventable and someone is almost
always at fault. It is incumbent on all
emergency vehicle operators to learn to
be safe drivers and practice safe driving
habits while operating apparatus.
Emergency Vehicle Incident
Prevention
Protect
 Yourself
 Your Fellow Firefighters
 Your Community
By learning to drive
Safely !!!!!!!
Lesson One
Some Legal Aspects of Emergency
Vehicle Operations
Apparatus Incident Facts
Over 1300 workers are killed in traffic related
incidents each year.
 On average about 20 Firefighters are killed
annually responding to/or returning from
alarms.
 In 1999, six firefighters were killed when they
were ejected from a fire apparatus. (Wear
your seatbelt at all times!!)

EVIP = Emergency Vehicle
Incident Prevention
We are in the business of responding to
traffic incidents to help. We should be
especially mindful of preventing traffic
incidents. We have a great deal of
responsibility and liability as firefighters to
drive and reach our destination safely.
Three Principles of Emergency Vehicle
Operation:
Emergency vehicle operators are subject to
all traffic regulations unless a specific
exemption is made.
2. Exemptions are legal only in the emergency
mode.
3. Even with an exemption, the operator can
be found criminally or civilly liable
if involved in a traffic incident.
1.
The Law Applies To Me

While there are laws on
the books which allow us
to operate emergency
vehicles and give us some
freedom of action the
general public does not
have, there are also in
each section “catch
phrases” which place the
ultimate liability on our
shoulders.

So essentially, the traffic
laws as written apply to
each and every one of us,
emergency responder or
not.
The BIG PRINT gives it to you:
While responding to an alarm, you may:




Park or stand your vehicle irrespective of all other laws to
the contrary.
Proceed past red lights and stop signs.
Exceed the maximum speed limits.
Disregard regulations governing the direction of movement
of traffic or turning in specific directions regardless of
posted signs or regulations to the contrary.
The provisions granted emergency vehicles “shall not relieve the driver. . . from the duty
to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons, nor shall such provisions
protect the driver from the consequences of his reckless disregard for the safety of
others.”
RCW 46.61.035
A True Emergency

Drivers of emergency vehicles will greatly reduce
the chances of being found guilty of negligence if
they are reasonably certain that a situation
represents a true emergency before exercising
the exemptions granted in the state statutes.
Is This a True Emergency?
ASK,
 Is there a high probability that this situation could
cause death or serious injury to an individual?
 Is there significant property imperiled?
 Could action on my part reduce the seriousness
of the situation?
You have to arrive at the true emergency to make a
difference! Driving too fast for conditions and or
taking chances is unacceptable!!
Furthermore

Besides RCWs and WAC’s we are also bound by:
 Local ordinances
 Department policy
•
Courts apportion blame if you should be driving an
emergency vehicle when involved in a wreck.
• They look at the case and determine who and what
contributed to the incident. They assign a percentage of
blame to each party.
For example:


They may say that the
“other” driver was 40%
to blame; the Fire
Department 40% to
blame; and the
emergency vehicle
operator 20% to blame.
They look at the dollar
award and assign the
percentages
accordingly.
Other
Drive
r
40%
Fire
Dept.
40%
YOU
20%
If the “other” driver is asking for $1,000,000 in damages for
alleged harm due to an incident with an emergency vehicle,
the award would be as follows:
“Other” driver, 40% = No
award.
 Fire department, 40% =
$400,000
 Emergency vehicle
driver (YOU,
PERSONALLY), 20% =
$200,000

Summary
Drive with “Due Regard” because you will be
held responsible for your actions while
operating an emergency vehicle!!
 Not driving safely, could be the biggest
mistake you ever make. Affecting you, your
family, your crew and the Department.
 Emergency driving is the highest risk we
routinely face while on duty. Do not
underestimate its importance and the possible
consequences associated with an incident!!

Lesson Two
Concepts of Defensive Driving:
A Matter of Attitude
Drivers Ed Coaching Tip
Mental Motivation
Defensive driving is largely a matter of
attitude.
 Understanding how your mental state effects
your driving is critical to becoming a safe
driver.
 Routine (driving in the same area every day)
can cause us to become inattentive.
 Don’t become complacent with emergency
driving. You never know where or when
something bad might happen !!!

The Five Components of the Driving
Process
Scan
 Identify
 Predict
 Decide
 Execute

S.I.P.D.E
Driver Failure
Types of Driver Failure






Carelessness
Incompetence
Recklessness
Inattentiveness
Inability to judge distances
Slow reaction of drivers
A Defensive Driver
Expects and makes allowances for the mistakes of
others.
 Keeps alert, adjusts driving to meet all hazards of
weather, road, and traffic conditions.
 Avoids bad habits.
 Avoids following too closely.

A fire department driver must maintain a safe
driving attitude
Regardless of the contributing factors
which may tend to influence him/her.
 Drivers with poor attitudes usually make
excuses for mistakes that cause property
damage or injury.

Lesson Three
Important Physical Forces
Don’t underestimate the power of physical forces!
Painful Boat Crash
Vehicle Control
While driving, an operator can only control a vehicle’s
velocity (speed) and direction.
How does this engine driver do?
How Not to Drive a Fire Truck
Several physical forces influence the
amount of control the operator has:
If the limits created by the physical force are not
exceeded, the operator can fully control both the
emergency vehicle’s velocity and direction.
 If they are exceeded, control will be lost.

This is worth seeing again – a
perfect example of exceeding
physical forces !!
Tiller Accident
You can exceed the physical limits
and lose control by
Driving too fast for conditions.
 Braking inappropriately.
 Changing direction too abruptly.
 Tracking a curve at too high a speed.

Brake Fade
 Brake
fade is caused by overheating.
 Sustained hard braking heats up the brakes.
 The brake pedal becomes harder to apply.
 Then the brakes can fail entirely.
Emergency Braking - Hydraulic
Brakes

Apply hard pressure to the brake pedal without
locking the wheels.
 When pavement is dry - quick firm jabs on the
pedal
 When roadway is slippery - short, steady
pressure; release and repeat
(Tires must roll in order for a driver to
control a vehicle’s direction)
Emergency Braking - Air Brakes
Apply a steady pressure.
 Do not fan air brakes - except on slippery
pavement.

 Fanning brakes wastes air pressure and
contributes to brake fade due to excessive
heat buildup.
Momentum and inertia affect vehicle control.

With increased momentum, that is, as speed
increases or a bigger vehicle is involved,
 Stopping distance increases.
 Brakes must work harder; friction and heat
increase.
 Inertia will be harder to overcome. Therefore,
changing direction is more difficult.
 The track the vehicle will follow must be wider.
Lesson Four
Driving Conditions and
Contingencies
What is a Driving Contingency?
“A chance, collision, or possibility conditional on
something uncertain”
Examples:
 Traffic suddenly and abruptly stopping
 Ice on the roadway
 Out of control vehicle
A longer reaction time will help you avoid a
collision when a driving contingency occurs

Prepare for Contingency Situations

Primary causes of contingency situations:
 Vehicle malfunctions or failures
 A sudden change or deterioration in the roadway
 The appearance of an obstacle in the roadway
 Driver error
Precautions for Contingencies

Attempt to head off driver error.
 Begin shift well rested and w/out personal
stress.
 Remain alert.
 Avoid unnecessary risks !!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Handling Contingencies-Evasive Steering Maneuvers
Driver’s hands should be on the steering wheel at the
9 o’clock and 3 o’clock positions. This allows the
largest possible turn without moving the hands.
 Turn the steering wheel in the direction of escape
route.
 Counter steer as soon as vehicle is clear of obstacle.
 Avoid hard braking--hard braking can lock the wheels,
and locked wheels won’t steer.

Handling Contingencies-Unavoidable Collisions
Choose the object you will collide with.
 Choose the course least likely to cause injury or death.
 Avoid head-on collisions--these are the most
damaging to life and property.
 Steer to cause your vehicle to sideswipe or hit the
other object at an angle.

Lesson Five
Operating Apparatus:
Vehicle Control Tasks
To Review
Lights and sirens are used to inform traffic and
pedestrians of an emergency vehicle’s presence
and thus, to aid in clearing a path for the
emergency vehicle.
 Per the law, they both should be on at all times
while driving in the emergency mode.
 If you choose to turn the siren off at anytime, you
must still operate with due regard for the safety of
others. If you fail to do so, you may be held liable.

Sirens - Limitations on Effectiveness
Siren sounds do not travel well around buildings or
corners. (the intersection of NE 185th and SR527)
 A study has shown that existing sirens are effective
only to vehicles traveling in the same direction ahead
of the emergency vehicle and to pedestrians.
 Even at fairly close range, the siren may not be heard
by motorists with windows up, air conditioning on, or
radio on.

Motorists’ Reactions to Lights and
Sirens
Has steadily gotten worse. Often, they
don’t want to stop or pull over for us
anymore. (they will even race us)
 It’s very easy to get frustrated. Don’t let
it affect your driving.
 You should always pass on the left,
whenever possible. If you must pass
on the right, do so with extreme caution.
If an incident occurs, you may be held
liable.

Negotiating Intersections
The majority of emergency
apparatus incidents occur at
intersections !!!
Use extreme caution !!!!!!!!!!!!!
Intersections are the most likely areas for fatal incidents.
 Before crossing an intersection, you must make sure that you
have gained and then maintain complete control of all lanes of
traffic.
 Never blow through a red light or stop sign. Stop or slow down
enough to where you could stop if necessary.
 Don’t forget to announce your approach to an intersection,
where you think responding apparatus might meet.

Intersections are dangerous
You must gain control before
proceeding through!!
Fire Truck Crash
Incidents, Near Misses ???
Please share your stories of incidents, any
near misses and or close calls that you have
experienced in your career as a driver or a
passenger.
 We can discuss and learn a great deal from
You !!
 Please Share !!!!!!!!!!!!

Backing Up
A majority of our incidents have
occurred while backing up!

Backing-up mishaps account for a large proportion
of emergency vehicle incidents.

Park so backing is minimized or eliminated.
When the vehicle must be backed:
Crew members shall be stationed in such a position as
to assist the driver.
 At night, use backup or rear-deck lights to illuminate
the rear area behind the vehicle.
 Back up person should use appropriate hand signals.

 You
MUST have a back up person!
Traffic Safety
Protecting People While
Stabilizing The Incident
Provides reasonably safe and efficient movement of
traffic.
Reasonably protects workers, responders to traffic
incidents, and their equipment.
We must establish a control zone early in the incident.
•
We have had an Aid Car hit, while on the shoulder of I405 and we have experienced several close calls.
•
A South King Fire and Rescue Firefighter was critically
injured after being hit on I-5 in November of 2011.
•
WE MUST BE EXREMLY CAREFUL ON THESE
TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS !!!!
Components of a TTC Zone
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Advance Warning Area
Transition Area
Activity Area
Buffer Space
Termination Area
Placement of Traffic Control Devices
Right
Wrong
Placement of Apparatus
Physical protection
barrier to secondary
collisions
 Protection of the pump
operator
 Protection of the crews
 Protection of the
citizens

Placement of Apparatus
Fire engines and other large apparatus
Park at a 45 degree angle
 Exposes more surface area to absorb an
impact from an errant vehicle
 Provides a “wall” of protection

Placement of Apparatus
Transport vehicles
Downstream:
 Parallel with traffic
 Ease of loading
gurney into vehicle
 Clear access to
roadway when
leaving for transport

Placement of Apparatus
When the fire engine is to be staffed with a pump
operator/engineer
Park at a 45 degree angle
with the pump panel
(drivers side) facing the
Activity Area
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
Common misconception:
The more warning lights that are flashing, the better we
can be seen
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
The reality is:
The warning lights can be seen very well
Drivers get “drawn in” to the lights
Personnel visibility is reduced when they are overcome
by excessive emergency lights
Night Time Visibility
At the incident scene
Turn off all unnecessary
headlights when parked
at the scene
Lesson 7
Apparatus Inspections
“Very Important”
The Daily Inspection

Primary
 Check overall condition
of vehicle.
 Check underneath for
leaking fluids.
 Check tires, oil level,
primer fluid, seat belts,
adjust driver’s seat and
mirrors.

Secondary
 Start apparatus and allow
to warm up.
 Check all gauges,
exterior lighting, sirens,
horns, windows, water
tank level.
 Check all equipment,
ladders, ropes, SCBAs,
aid kits, oxygen, suction
units, stretchers, mileage.
 Initial the inspection
sheet. Will be used in
court !!
The Weekly Inspection
• Bleed air tanks.
• Check undercarriage, transmission oil,
water lines, windshield wipers, tires,
batteries, ground ladders, portable
equipment, SCBAs, first aid supplies,
oxygen.
• Operate engine and pump.
• Initial the inspection sheet. Will be used
in court !!
Department Specific Information
By State law, you are required to have your Drivers
License with you at all times when you drive any
vehicle on public roadways.
 It is preferred, that you have your current Drivers
License with you while driving Department
vehicles.
 At a minimum, you must have a copy of your
current Drivers License with you while driving. The
best place to keep it is in your bunker gear. It will
be checked twice a year, during the EVIP Rodeo
and Road Course.

Department Information Cont.
We have had numerous incidents involving
apparatus and apparatus bay doors. It has cost
the Department $$$$$$.
 Please review the operation of the bay door
sensors at each Station. They all operate
differently. At 45, they are on a 3 minute timer. It
is on a timer only, that will not reset when you
trigger the eye. If the eye is blocked, the door will
not come down. But , if your timing is just right,
the Engine can strike the door before it has a
chance to trigger the eye. Be careful!!
 What about 42 and 44 ?

Emergency Vehicle Incident
Prevention
Summary
There is a lot to know about the operation of
emergency vehicles.
 There is too much liability involved not to
know as much as we can.
 We must each do our part to protect the
public and our co-workers.

Summary
Be mentally ready to drive
 Remember “Due Regard”
 Your responsible for your actions when you
are behind the wheel!

DRIVE
SAFELY!!
Thank you!
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