Agricultural Tractor and Machinery Safety Training

Agricultural Tractor and Machinery Safety
Chapter 4
The student will be able to:
- demonstrate proper procedure for mounting and
dismounting an agricultural tractor.
 - identify and locate controls on an agricultural
 - identify symbols used on agricultural tractors
and machinery
 - perform a pre-operational check on an
agricultural tractor.
 - perform start-up and shut down procedures.
The student will be able to: (cont)
- describe and demonstrate safe operating
 - identify conditions which cause roll over and
demonstrate how to avoid roll over situations.
 - describe and demonstrate procedures for
transporting loads.
 - describe and demonstrate procedures for
highway travel.
- face the tractor at all times.
 - use the three point contact method.
 - never mount or dismount a moving tractor.
 - always use the designated hand holds and steps.
 - never use control levers as a hand hold and do
not step on foot controls when mounting and
Safety Precautions cont:
- never mount or dismount a tractor from the rear.
 - clean your shoes and wipe your hands before
 - never jump off a tractor.
 - remove any trash or obstructions on the steps or
operator’s compartment before mounting.
Mounting procedures:
1. Clean shoes of any
mud, oil or any other
residue preventing firm
contact with the steps.
2. Be sure hands are free
of any oil or other residue
preventing a firm grip of
hand holds.
3. Face the tractor
operator’s compartment
and secure a firm grip
with both hands.
Mounting procedures cont:
4. Place one foot on the first step,
then while using both hands and
foot to pull yourself up, place the
other foot on the next step.
5. With both feet firmly on the
steps, move one hand to secure a
second hold and then move the
lowest foot on the steps to the next
step. Repeat this procedure until
you have both feet on the
operator’s platform.
Mounting procedures cont:
 6.
With both feet on the
operator’s platform and a firm
grip with both hands, turn and
move one foot to the opposite
side of the operator’s platform
having the seat behind you.
 7. You can now sit in the
operator’s seat, and lock the
seat belt if the tractor is
equipped with a ROPS.
Procedures for dismounting a tractor are:
1. Unlock the seat belt, if provided, secure a firm
grip with both hands and stand in front of the seat.
 2. While still maintaining a firm grip with both
hands, move both feet to one side of the operator’s
 3. Turn facing the operator’s compartment and
while looking at the steps, place one foot on the
top step, keeping a firm grip with both hands.
Dismounting Procedures cont.
4. Obtain a new grip with one hand if necessary,
then move the other foot down to the next step.
 5. Repeat step 4 until you have both feet firmly
on the ground.
 6. Release both hand holds, turn facing away
from the tractor and walk away.
are devices (typically levers and switches)
designed to give the operator a means of
communication with the tractor and the ability to
regulate and command the tractor to perform all
desired responses. The controls are located within
reach from the operator’s seat. Agricultural
tractors have three basic type of controls.
Control Types:
 1.
Foot controls - these controls
are operated by the operator’s
 2. Hand controls - these controls
are operated by the operator’s
 3. Combination controls - these
controls can be operated by the
operator’s feet and/or hands. The
most common is the engine
speed control.
The nine basic controls common to all
agricultural tractors are:
1. Brake control - this gives the operator control
over stopping, turning, and parking.
 2. Clutch control - this allows the operator to
engage or disengage power to moving parts of the
tractor. A clutch control can be considered the
go-no-go control. This includes: traction controls,
combination traction and brake controls, PTO
controls, and field implement controls.
Basic Controls cont:
3. Engine speed control (throttle)- this allows the
operator to regulate the revolutions per minute
(RPM’s) of the engine.
 4. Ground speed and directional controls
(transmission gears)- these controls give the
operator control over ground speed (how fast you
are traveling) and direction (forward or reverse).
 5. Differential lock - this control locks together
the rotation of the main drive wheels.Control
types continued:
Basic Controls cont:
6. Steering control - better known as the steering
wheel - gives the operator the ability to turn right
or left while moving in either a forward or reverse
 7. Electrical controls - these controls are either on
or off. Electrical controls activate accessories
such as the engine starter and lights.
Basic Controls cont:
8. Engine stop controls - on gasoline engines, it
stops the spark going to the spark plugs; on some
gasoline and all diesel engines, it shuts off the
fuel to the engine. Stop controls can be either
electrically or manually (push-pull) activated.
 9. Lift controls for implements or equipment these are typically hand type controls and give the
operator the ability to position or maneuver any
attachments into a desired position.
find out the specific types
and the operation of controls on
your tractor, read the operator’s
are the devices that allow the tractor to
communicate with the operator and notify him/her
of safe and/or unsafe conditions. Instruments may
be in the form of a warning light, analog gauge, or
digital display.
Most Common Instruments used include:
1. Engine speed indicator (tachometer)- this
indicator identifies the engine speed in revolutions
per minute (RPM).
 2. Oil pressure indicator - the oil pressure
indicator will either tell the operator the actual oil
pressure or warn of low oil pressure during engine
 3. Engine temperature indicator- the engine
temperature indicator will either indicate actual
operating temperature or notify the operator of an
unsafe operating condition.
Most Common Instruments cont.
4. Electrical system condition - this is commonly
referred to as the battery condition indicator.
However, it’s actual purpose is to indicate if the
electrical charging system is supplying adequate
voltage to maintain all electrical components
while in operation.
 5. Miscellaneous instruments - some
manufacturers include a variety of other
instruments. Some additional indicators may
include: fuel gauge, coolant level, air filter
condition, transmission temperature, hydraulic oil
level and many more.
Operator symbols
are visually recognized figures used to transmit
information free of words of explanation (ASAE,
1995). The operator symbols are used to identify
operator controls, instruments, and servicing
locations and/or devices.
Hand signals
are used when the operator is being assisted by
another person. The hand signals become the
method of communication between the operator
and assistant when noise or distance prevents the
use of normal voice communications.
Safety signs
are a visual alerting device in the form of a decal,
label, placard, or other marking such as an
embossing, stamping, etching, or other process
that advises the observer of the nature and degree
of the potential hazard(s) that can cause injury or
death. Safety signs can also provide safety
precautions or evasive actions to take, or provide
other directions to eliminate or reduce the hazard
Three basic types of Safety Signs:
 DANGER - indicates a threatening hazardous
situation that, if not avoided, will result in death
or serious injury. The signal word “DANGER” is
to be limited to the most extreme situations,
typically for machine components that, for
connection purposes, cannot be guarded (ASAE).
Safety Signs cont.
 WARNING - indicates a potentially hazardous
situation that, if not avoided, could result in death
or serious injury, and includes hazards that are
exposed when guards are removed. The signal
word “WARNING” may also be used to alert
against unsafe practices (ASAE).
Safety Signs cont.
 CAUTION - indicates a potentially hazardous
situation that, if not avoided, may result in minor
or moderate injury. The signal word “CAUTION”
may also be used to alert against unsafe conditions
Pre-operational Check
 Battery
condition - when
checking the battery,
safety has priority over
everything you do.
When checking the
battery the operator
Pre-operational Check (battery safety)
wear the proper safety
equipment. (gloves,
apron, face shield, etc.)
 - keep fire or flame away
from the battery.
 - inspect for loose and/or
corroded connections.
Pre-operational Check (battery safety cont.)
inspect electrolyte level
(fluid level). (not
required on maintenance
free batteries)
 - inspect battery hold
down. -- Battery should
be secure and unable to
move around.
Pre-operational Check (battery safety cont.)
inspect condition of
cables (cracked, chaffed,
torn, or melted
 - look for cleanliness of
the battery top. --No
build-up of trash such as
Pre-operational Check (Fuel, coolant and oil
maintaining adequate fluid levels is important to
keeping the agricultural tractor running.
 Fuel level - check the fuel level by removing the
fuel cap and visually checking the level in the
tank. The fuel level may also be read from a fuel
gauge if the tractor is so equipped.
Pre-operational Check (Fuel, coolant and oil
levels cont.)
 Coolant
- check the coolant level
by removing the radiator cap and
visually checking for the proper
Allow the engine to cool until the
radiator is cool to the touch.
Pre-operational Check (Fuel, coolant and oil
levels cont.)
Oil (engine) - check the oil level by removing the
dip stick and reading the level indicated on the dip
 Oil (hydraulic) - Check the transmission and
hydraulic oil levels according to the operator’s
Pre-operational Check (Fluid leaks)
check for any wet or damp areas on the machinery
as well as any puddles on the floor or ground
under the agricultural tractor.
 WARNING: When a fluid leak is identified,
have the problem corrected before operating the
Pre-operational Check (Tire condition and
check tire condition by looking for cuts, bruises or
breaks in the sidewalls, excessive weathering,
uneven tread wear, damp spots on tires filled with
fluid, and air pressure. See the operator’s manual
for correct air pressure.
Pre-operational Check (Tractor Tires
Servicing procedure:)
attach an unpressurized air hose to the tractor tire
valve stem.
 stand to the side, not in front of the tire, and
slowly add air pressure using a regulator to avoid
excess pressure.
 with the desired air pressure registering on the
gauge, shut off the flow of air to the tire and
remove the air hose form the valve stem. Note:
some air may escape while removing the air hose
depending on the type of connector used.
Pre-operational Check (Defective and/or loose
Check for any loose or missing bolts, pins, wiring,
or shields. Tighten all loose accessories and
guards and replace anything found defective.
 Air filter - check the air filter every day.
Pre-operational Check (Safety devices)
this can include fire extinguishers, first aid kit,
and safety signs or warning labels. Also check
for any safety switches that have been
disconnected or bypassed. If a safety switch is not
working, have it corrected before operating the
Pre-operational Check (Operator’s
consists of the platform, seat, controls,
instruments, and ROPS.
 Platform - should be clear of any trash, mud or
other clutter and have an anti-slip surface.
 Seat - should be adjustable and positioned to
where the operator can reach all controls
comfortably. The seat should also be equipped
with a seat belt if a Roll Over Protective Structure
(ROPS) is attached to the tractor.
Pre-operational Check (Operator’s
compartment cont.)
Controls - should all be identifiable and within
comfortable reach of the operator and functional.
 Instruments - should all be identifiable, functional,
and readable from the operator’s seat.
 ROPS - should be attached according to the
operator’s manual with no unauthorized
Pre-operational Check (Cab, if equiped)
check for clean, cracked or broken
 Also check for functional wipers, doors,
and clutter that may block your view from
any angle.
 Check mirrors for adjustment and
Pre-operational Check (Equipment setup)
 Check
for proper ballasting (weights),
 Check for properly attached connections,
 that you have the proper size tractor for the
Pre-start Checklist (includes:)
1. Make sure everyone is clear: no one else should
be on or next to the agricultural tractor.
 2. If parked inside a building, open doors to allow
for adequate ventilation during starting.
 3. Properly mount the tractor and adjust the
operator’s seat.
 4. Fasten seat belt if tractor is equipped with a
Pre-start Checklist cont.
5. Check all controls:
 place hydraulic controls in a neutral or static
 place three point lift control in a down or locked
 put PTO in an off or disengaged position.
 place brakes in a set or locked position.
 set ground speed and directional controls in
neutral or park position.
Pre-start Checklist cont.
6. Clutch pedal is in disengaged position.
 7. Turn ignition switch to “On” position and
check gauges and warning lights for
operation.Starting a tractor from the ground can
result in the tractor riding you instead of you
riding it.
Pre-start Safety
Safe Operating Procedures
Watch where you are going, especially at row
ends, on roads, and around trees and low hanging
 When backing, use a spotter to guide you when
your vision is blocked.
 To avoid upsets drive the tractor with care and at
speeds compatible with safety, especially when
operating over rough ground, when crossing
ditches or slopes, and when turning corners.
Safe Operating Procedures cont.
Avoid operating the tractor near ditches,
embankments, and holes.
 Stay off slopes too steep for safe operation.
 Travel straight up or down a steep slope rather
than across it.
 A bare tractor or tractor with rear mounted
attachments should be backed up the slope in
reverse and travel forward downhill.
Safe Operating Procedures cont.
A tractor with a front-end bucket (loader) should
travel forward uphill and backed downhill with
the loader bucket as low as possible at all times.
 Lock tractor brake pedals together when
transporting on roads to provide two wheel
 Keep brakes evenly adjusted to provide even
braking when brakes are locked together.
Safe Operating Procedures cont.
Keep the tractor in the same gear when going
downhill as used when going uphill. Do not coast
or free wheel down hills.
 Any towed vehicle whose total weight exceeds
that of the towing tractor must be equipped with
brakes for safe operation.
 When the tractor is stuck or tires are frozen to the
ground, back the tractor up to prevent upset.
Safe Operating Procedures cont.
Always check overhead clearance, especially
when transporting the tractor or towing high
 When operating at night, adjust lights to prevent
blinding an oncoming driver.
 Make sure seat belt is fastened if ROPS is
 Do not permit others to ride on the tractor.
Tractors have only one seat for one person.
Safe Operating Procedures cont.
Operate the tractor smoothly - no jerky turns,
starts or stops.
 Hitch only to the drawbar and hitch points
recommended, and never above the center line of
the rear axle.
 When the tractor is stopped, be sure the brakes are
securely set.
 Never use attachments unless they are properly
matched to your tractor.
 Operate controls only from the operator’s seat.
Safe Operating Procedures cont.
Never leave the tractor unattended with the engine
 Pay attention to what you are doing, don’t let a
day dream turn into a permanent dream.
 Never operate nor allow anyone else to operate
agricultural tractors or machinery while under the
influence of alcohol or drugs.
Safe Operating Procedures cont.
Do not let your tractor bounce. You may lose
steering control.
 Do not brake suddenly. Apply brakes smoothly
and gradually.
 Never use a tractor to round up farm animals.
Prevent Roll-overs by:
operating the tractor with care and at speeds
compatible with safety, especially when operating
over rough ground, when crossing ditches or
slopes, and when turning corners.
 avoiding operation of the tractor near ditches,
embankments, and holes.
 staying off slopes too steep for safe operation.
 traveling straight up or down a steep slope rather
than across it.
Prevent Roll-overs by (cont.):
backing a bare tractor or tractor with rear mounted
attachments up the slope in reverse and travel
forward downhill.
 traveling forward with a front-end bucket (loader)
uphill and backing downhill with the loader
bucket as low as possible at all times.
 staying away from ditches and embankments a
distance equal to or greater than the depth of the
ditch or embankment.
Roll-over Warning
DANGER - Carelessness on hillsides,
around ditches, near embankments and
holes can lead to serious injury or death.
Connections can be classified as a(n):
 - single point connection (drawbar connection)
 - three point connection
 - PTO connection
 - hydraulic connection
 - electrical connection
 - multiple connection consisting of two or more
individual type connections.
- never exceed the rated load capacities of your
 - be sure the tractor is properly ballasted for the
equipment and/or load.
 - select a safe ground speed.
 - always let the engine assist with braking when
going down hills.
- lock the brakes together.
 - slow down when making turns and make wide
gentle turns.
 - place all implements into their narrowest
transport configuration.
 - avoid transporting equipment and loads along
hillsides and near ditches and holes.
- use proper safety hitch pin with safety clip
 - raise all implements to their transport position
and lock them in place.
 - allow sufficient clearance for oversize loads.
 - watch overhead clearance when moving high
loads or equipment.
- Refer to the operator’s manual for transporting
 - Lock the brake pedals together.
 - Raise all implements to their transport position
and lock them in place.
 - Place all implements into their narrowest
transport position.
 - Disengage PTO and differential lock.
- Make sure tractor and towed equipment are
equipped with SMV(slow moving vehicle)
 - Make sure any required clearance flags or hazard
lights are in place and in working order.
 - Make sure you use a proper safety hitch pin with
safety clip retainer.
 - Make sure any towed implements are equipped
with a safety chain linking tractor and implement.
- Clean off all reflectors and road lights, front and
rear, and be certain they are in working order.
 - Familiarize yourself with -- and obey-- all local,
state, an federal laws appropriate to your class of
 Allowing passengers to ride can become a deadly
WARNING: Do not allow any riders on the
tractor or towed equipment.
 Know the route you are going to travel.
 Use flashing lights when traveling on roads, day
or night, unless prohibited by law.
Use caution when towing a load at transport
speeds. If the towed equipment is not equipped
with brakes:
 DO NOT TOW equipment weighing more than
twice the tractor weight.
 Do not exceed 10 MPH (16 KPH) if the towed
equipment weighs more than the tractor.
 Do not exceed 20 MPH (32 KPH) while towing
equipment that weights less than the tractor.
Use extreme caution when transporting on snow
covered or slippery pavement.
 Wait for traffic to clear before entering a public
 Beware of blind intersections. Slow down until
you have a clear view.
 Make wide, gentle turns.
 Signal your intent to slow, stop, or turn.
Shift to a lower gear before going up or down
 Keep tractor in gear. Never coast with clutch
disengaged or transmission in neutral.
 Stay out of the path of oncoming traffic.
 Drive in the right hand lane as close to the edge as
If traffic builds up behind you, pull off the road
and let it go by. When pulling off the road, pull
completely off the road staying away from ditches
and embankments.
 Drive defensively. Anticipate what other drivers
might do.
 When towing a load, start braking sooner than
normal and slow down gradually.
 Watch out for overhead obstructions.
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