common core unit 1 history9513

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Unit 1 Section 1:
Early Exploration and Settlement
How did
people get to
North America?
Land Bridge Theory
10,000 years ago, much of the oceans’
waters were contained in ice or glaciers.
 The lack of liquid water exposed land
formations which were traditionally covered
by the oceans.
 Scientists believe during this period America’s
first inhabitants migrated from Asia into North
America via the Bering land bridge.
 The exact time at which the hunters crossed
the land bridge is unknown.

Land Bridge Theory
10,000 years ago, much of the oceans’
waters were contained in ice or glaciers.
 The lack of liquid water exposed land
formations which were traditionally covered
by the oceans.
 Scientists believe during this period
America’s first inhabitants migrated
from Asia into North America via the
Bering land bridge.
 The exact time at which the hunters crossed
the land bridge is unknown.

The First People in North America

Paleo-Indians: Scientific evidence shows that the
hunting groups that migrated from Asia into
present day Canada.

They were hunter-gatherers. They lived by hunting
animals and collecting wild plants.

The movement of people from one region to
another is called migration.
The First People in North America

Paleo-Indians: Scientific evidence shows that
the hunting groups that migrated from Asia
into present day Canada.

They were hunter-gatherers. They lived by
hunting animals and collecting wild plants.

The movement of people from one region to
another is called migration.
The End of the Ice Age

When the Ice Age ended

Rising temperatures
melted glaciers, the
oceans rose covering the
Bering Land Bridge with
water.
about 8000 BC the earth’s
climate changed.
What makes a group of people
Civilized?
Civilized People:
 Have
a written language
 Are organized
 Share jobs for the greater good of
the group.
 Share common thoughts and
ideas.
Civilized People:
 Have
a written language
 Are organized
 Share jobs for the greater
good of the group.
 Share common thoughts and
ideas.
What leads people to form
societies?
Agriculture
What leads people to form
societies?
Agriculture

Indian
societies
grow with
help of
agriculture.

Successful
Agriculture=
population
growth!

Indian societies
grow with help
of agriculture.
Successful
Agriculture=
population
growth!

CORN IS KING!!!
Because of agriculture, various
Indian cultures were established
throughout North America
Meanwhile Back in
Europe…People worry about their
wealth!
To make money you find things to trade.
 The more you trade the wealthier you
become. The more money you have the
more power and status you have!

Trade=Money=Power
Europeans want $$$

European Merchant families
wanted to get capital-money
or property that is used to earn
more money.
Europeans want $$$

European Merchant
families wanted to get
capital-money or property
that is used to earn more
money.
Europeans want $$$
 Merchants
also created joint-stock
companies in which a group of people
invest together. These investors
share the profit or losses.
 Risky? Maybe, but not as risky if they
invested all by themselves.
Trade with Africa and Asia
The more trade the
more___________
the
more__________!
 The greatest profits
came from trading
with distant
continents like Africa
and Asia.

Trade with Africa and Asia
The more trade
the more
MONEY the
more_POWER!
 The greatest
profits came from
trading with
distant continents
like Africa and
Asia.

African Trade Goods
Gold
 Ivory
 Salt
 Slaves

Asia Trade Goods
Silk
 Spices

Who made Asia Famous?

Because of him technology and goods
spread between the continents. Europeans
journeyed to Europe in search of wealth!
TRADE NOT THE ONLY REASON TO GO TO
AFRICA AND ASIA!
1.
2.
3.
Why else should Europeans go to Asia
and Africa? (TRADE #1 REASON)
To study their cultures. Educated
Europeans heard about Asia
from____________ and wanted to see
what all the fuss was about! They
thought they should study their
culture.
Share Religion-Europeans thought they
should share Christianity.
TRADE NOT THE ONLY REASON TO GO
TO AFRICA AND ASIA!
1.
2.
3.
Why else should Europeans go to Asia
and Africa? (TRADE #1 REASON)
To study their cultures. Educated
Europeans heard about Asia
from____________ and wanted to see
what all the fuss was about! They
thought they should study their
culture.
Share/Spread Religion-Europeans
thought they should share Christianity.
Christopher
Columbus
I am a sailor
from Genoa,
Italy! I want
to find riches.
Christopher Columbus
Major Accomplishment:
 He was the first European since the
Vikings to "discover" the New World.
 Convinced Queen Isabella and King
Ferdinand of Spain to finance his
expeditions promising them items of
value and claim land for Spain.
Shorthand=Queen/King financed his
expedition
Christopher Columbus
Major Accomplishment:
 He was the first European since the
Vikings to "discover" the New World.
Convinced Queen Isabella and King
Ferdinand of Spain to finance his
expeditions promising them items of
value and claim land for Spain.
Queen/King financed Columbus’
expedition

Columbus says farewell to the Queen.
Columbus
Believed in easier route to India for Spain
 Set sail to the West from Spain with 90 men in
the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria to find the
Indies. They had a years worth of supplies.
 Traveled 150 miles a day (His men became
nervous and wanted to mutiny)

Christopher Columbus
On October 12, 1492 Columbus landed
on the Bahamas Islands reaching the
Americas.
 Thought he found India & called the
people “Indians” (Bahamas)
 Had no spices or gold
 First European to taste pineapple,
sweet potatoes, and corn.

Christopher Columbus
On October 12, 1492 Columbus
landed on the Bahamas Islands,
reaching the Americas.
 Thought he found India & called the
people “Indians” (Bahamas)
 Had no spices or gold
 First European to taste pineapple,
sweet potatoes, and corn.

Columbus thought he had landed in Japan. He
thought he had circled the world and found a
western route to Asia.
Christopher Columbus



Christopher had four big
voyages, lasting from 14921504
Christopher’s voyages helped
to propel Spain into the middle
of European exploration,
conquest and settlement.
Spain becomes a powerful and
rich nation because of
Columbus.
Christopher Columbus



Christopher had four big
voyages, lasting from 14921504
Christopher’s voyages helped
to propel Spain into the middle
of European exploration,
conquest and settlement.
Spain becomes a powerful
and rich nation because of
Columbus.
Continued…
I died in
1506…

Never did find India
or the gold he
believed he would
find.
 After his last voyage
to the West Indies
Columbus returned to
Spain in poor health
and was no longer
favored by the
Spanish King.
Columbus Impacts Europe

Columbus opened
up a new era in
which Europeans
rushed to explore
the Americas!
Columbus Impacts Europe

Columbus
opened up a new
era in which
Europeans
rushed to
explore the
Americas!
The Columbian Exchange
The Columbian Exchange

The transfer of plants, animals and other
items became known as the Columbian
Exchange because it resulted from
Columbus’ explorations.
The Columbian Exchange

The transfer of plants, animals and
other items became known as the
Columbian Exchange because it
resulted from Columbus’ explorations.
The Columbian Exchange
The Columbian Exchange
Explorers
brought plants,
animals, and diseases to the
“New World” of the Americas
and brought back plants and
animals to the “Old World”Europe, Asia and Africa.
The Use of Plants and Animals
Europeans brought horses, cattle and pigswhich ran wild in the Americas.
 American Indians began using these
animals for transportation and to improve
their diet.
 They farmed the wheat and barley
Europeans had brought over.


Rice was introduced to West Africa.
And They Brought Death and
Disease
European
Explorers also
brought with
them:
Measles
Smallpox
Typhus and more.
The natives had no
immunity and
MILLIONS died!
And Europeans Brought
Death and Disease
European
Explorers also
brought with
them:
Measles
Smallpox
Typhus and
more.
The natives had
no immunity and
MILLIONS died!
Did you know?
While some regard Columbus as a hero
for his achievements, many Native
Americans consider Columbus a day
of mourning.
The Race for Empires
Essential Question:
What are the reasons
someone would leave
Europe for the Americas?
?
What would
make you leave
your home?
Write:
Reasons people left Europe for the
Americas…
1.
2.
3.
Religious Conflicts
Religious freedom/escape from
persecution.
The Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther Challenged the Church
and said its wealth was corrupting
the religion (indulgences, cathedrals,
Pope’s power, etc.) His actions led to
the Protestant Reformation, a
religious movement to reform the
Catholic church.
1.
Religious Conflicts
Religious freedom/escape from
persecution.
The Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther Challenged the Church
and said its wealth was corrupting
the religion (indulgences, cathedrals,
Pope’s power, etc.) His actions led to
the Protestant Reformation, a
religious movement to reform the
Catholic church.
1.
Religious Conflicts
The Printing Press helped spread
Luther’s ideas of reformation.
Protestants printed many Bibles
and essays explaining their ideas.
This let people read and think for
themselves rather than rely on
the teachings of a priest.
Religious conflicts between
Catholics and Protestants took
place and some battles led to
death and destruction.
Reasons to go to the New
World
2. Escape from political persecution.
Wars
Unfair rules or rulers.
3. A desire to seek wealth or find a
better life.
Become rich
Escape famine
Explore/adventure
Reasons to go to the New
World
2. Escape from political
persecution.
 Wars
 Unfair rules or rulers.
3. A desire to seek wealth or
find a better life.
 Become rich
 Escape famine
 Explore/adventure
Review
Without looking at your notes, try to
remember the 3 reasons Europeans left
for the New World?
Trade in America
Remember Hernan Cortes defeats the rich
Aztecs and their leader Moctezuma II.
 Francisco Pizzaro defeats the wealthy Incas
and takes “as much gold as could be
carried.”
 Spain is wealthy and continues to explore
the “New World”
 England, France, The Netherlands and
Sweden also look to expand their empires.

The First English Settlement



Late 1500’s-England issued a charter
to Sir Walter Raleigh (a document
giving permission to start a colony)
He sent an expedition to N. America
where they landed in N. Carolina and
Virginia.
A colony is established in Roanoke
(now Virginia) in 1587 but
mysteriously the colony disappeared.
The First English Settlement



Late 1500’s-England issued a charter
to Sir Walter Raleigh (a document
giving permission to start a colony)
He sent an expedition to N. America
where they landed in N. Carolina and
Virginia.
A colony is established in
Roanoke (now Virginia) in 1587
but mysteriously the colony
disappeared.
A Second Try
England’s King James I allowed The
London Company to settle in Virginia in
1607. (105 colonists went)
 The company settled in Jamestown and
became the first permanent English
settlement.
 The new colonists were not prepared to
build and farm. Two-thirds died in the
first winter.

A Second Try
England’s King James I allowed The
London Company to settle in Virginia
in 1607. (105 colonists went)
 The company settled in Jamestown and
became the first permanent English
settlement.
 The new colonists were not prepared to
build and farm. Two-thirds died in the first
winter.

Reasons for English colonization in America
England
hoped to find silver
and gold in America.
An American Settlement
would furnish raw materials
that could not be grown in
England
Increased world power
Reasons for English colonization in America
England
hoped to find silver
and gold in America.
An American Settlement
would furnish raw materials
that could not be grown in
England
Increased world power
Jamestown was primarily an
economic venture.
Relationships with Native Americans
John Smith became the leader of Jamestown
who were helped by the powerful Powhatan
Indians.
 In 1609, 400 more settlers arrived but most
died from famine and disease. “The starving
time.” Only 60 survived.
 Jamestown failed to make a profit until John
Rolfe came and introduced Tobacco ( a cash
crop!)
 He married Pocahontas, the daughter of the
Powhatan chief.

Relationships with Native
Americans




John Smith became the leader of Jamestown who
were helped by the powerful Powhatan Indians.
In 1609, 400 more settlers arrived but most died
from famine and disease. “The starving time.”
Only 60 survived.
Jamestown failed to make a profit until John
Rolfe came and introduced Tobacco ( a cash
crop!)
He married Pocahontas, the daughter of the
Powhatan chief.
Pocahontas
Rolfe and Pocahontas’ marriage
helped establish peaceful relations.
 Unfortunately, Pocahontas went to
England to visit Rolfe and died three
years later.
 In 1622 colonists killed a Powhatan
leader and a 20 year war began.
 The London company could not
protect its colonists so England took
back the charter and Virginia
became a royal colony.

Colonial Regions
Colonial Regions Vocabulary
Merchant: A person who produces or
trades goods.
 Subsistence Farming: When a family
grows only enough food to survive.
 Homespun: Products that are made at
home (furniture, clothing, etc.)
 Cash Crops: Crops that are grown in
large amounts and sold for a profit.

Colonial Regions Vocabulary
Merchant: A person who produces
or trades goods.
 Subsistence Farming: grows only
enough food to survive.
 Homespun: Products that are made at
home (furniture, clothing, etc.)
 Cash Crops: Crops that are grown in
large amounts and sold for a profit.

Colonial Regions Vocabulary
Indentured Servants: People who are
brought to the colonies and must work
to pay off the trip.
 Transported Criminals: Criminals that
are taken from jail and made to work in
the colonies.
 Slaves: People captured in Africa and
sold to plantation owners. The
plantation owner saw them as property.

Colonial Regions Vocabulary



Indentured Servants: People who
are brought to the colonies and
must work to pay off the trip.
Transported Criminals: Criminals that
are taken from jail and made to work in
the colonies.
Slaves: People captured in Africa
and sold to plantation owners. The
plantation owner saw them as
property.
The Three Regions
New
England
Middle
Colonies
Southern
Colonies
The Three Regions
New
England
Middle
Colonies
Southern
Colonies
New England
Geography






Northern East - Woodlands
Very Short Growing Season
Long, Cold Winters
Large Forests
On the Atlantic Ocean
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New
Hampshire, Connecticut
New England
Geography






Northern East - Woodlands
Very Short Growing Season
Long, Cold Winters
Large Forests
On the Atlantic Ocean
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New
Hampshire, Connecticut
New England
Economy
PRODUCTS
 Subsistence Farming
 Timber and Ship
Building Supplies
(Rope, Masts, Tar)
 Dried Fish
 Rum and other
Manufactured Trade
Goods
New England
Economy
PRODUCTS
 Subsistence Farming
 Timber and Ship
Building Supplies
(Rope, Masts, Tar)
 Dried Fish
 Rum and other
Manufactured Trade
Goods
New England
Politics
Self-Governing
Charters
 Town Meetings
 The Mayflower
Compact (legal

New Hampshire
contract
agreeing to
have fair laws)
Connecticut
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
New England
Politics
Self-Governing
Charters
 Town Meetings
 The Mayflower
Compact (legal

New Hampshire
contract
agreeing to have
fair laws)
Connecticut
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
New England
Religion
Puritans (Protestants)
 Pilgrims (Separated
from Protestant)

New England
Religion
Puritans (Protestants)
 Pilgrims (Separated
from Protestant)

New England
Society
PEOPLE
 Puritans and Pilgrims
who believed in
working hard and
following strict rules.
 Merchants,
Manufacturers, and
Lawyers.
New England
Society
PEOPLE
 Puritans and Pilgrims
who believed in working
hard and following strict
rules.
 Merchants,
Manufacturers, and
Lawyers.
Middle Colonies
Geography
Lower Eastern
Woodlands
 Medium growing
season and cold
winters.
 Many lakes and
rivers for
transportation.

Middle Colonies
Geography
Lower Eastern
Woodlands
 Medium growing
season and cold
winters.
 Many lakes and
rivers for
transportation.

Middle Colonies
Economy
PRODUCTS
 Called the Bread
Colonies
 Farmed Wheat, Oat,
Barley and Rye.
 Made homespun
(homemade)
products.
 Traded very little.
Middle Colonies
Economy
PRODUCTS
 Called the Bread
Colonies
 Farmed Wheat, Oat,
Barley and Rye.
 Made homespun
(homemade)
products.
 Traded very little.
Middle Colonies
Politics
Religious
Freedom and
Tolerance
 Freedom of the
Press
 Strong Courts

Pennsylvania
New Jersey
Delaware
New York
Middle Colonies
Politics
Religious
Freedom and
Tolerance
 Freedom of
the Press
 Strong Courts

Pennsylvania
New Jersey
Delaware
New York
Middle Colonies
Religion

Quakers believed in
the equality of men
and women before
God.
Middle Colonies
Religion

Quakers believed in
the equality of
men and women
before God.
Middle Colonies
Society
People came from all
over: England, the
Netherlands, France,
Germany and others.
 Variety of Religions:
Puritans, Quakers,
Anglicans, Catholics,
and Jews.

Middle Colonies
Society
People came from
all over: England, the
Netherlands, France,
Germany and others.
 Variety of Religions:
Puritans, Quakers,
Anglicans, Catholics,
and Jews.

Southern Colonies
Geography
ENVIRONMENT
 Atlantic and Gulf
Coastal Plains.
 Long growing season
and fertile land.
 Warm for most of the
year
Southern Colonies
Geography
ENVIRONMENT
 Atlantic and Gulf Coastal
Plains.
 Long growing season
and fertile land.
 Warm for most of the
year
Southern Colonies
Economy
PRODUCTS
 Farmed Tobacco,
Rice, Indigo, and
Cotton.
 Trade “cash crops”
farmed on
Plantations.
 Purchase
manufactured
goods.
Southern Colonies
Economy
PRODUCTS
 Farmed Tobacco,
Rice, Indigo, and
Cotton.
 Trade “cash crops”
farmed on Plantations.
 Purchase
manufactured
goods.
Southern Colonies
Politics


Maryland
Virginia
Joint-Stock
Charters (they
are business)
Colonies run for
the profit of the
Joint-Stock
Company
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
Southern Colonies
Politics


Maryland
Virginia
Joint-Stock
Charters (they
are business)
Colonies run for the
profit of the JointStock Company
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
Southern Colonies
Religion
Catholics
 Protestants
 Toleration Act of
1649 – Laws
securing religions
freedom

Southern Colonies
Religion
Catholics
 Protestants
 Toleration Act of
1649 – Laws
securing religions
freedom

Southern
Colonies
Society
Anglicans
 English Plantation
Owners, Indentured
Servants, Transported
Criminals, and Slaves.

Southern
Colonies
Society
Anglicans
 English Plantation
Owners, Indentured
Servants, Transported
Criminals, and Slaves.

The Slave Trade
Directions
Please take out your notes and
then place your backpack on
the back wall and sit on the
floor in the designated area.
Fold your legs and sit up
straight.
Topic: The Slave Trade
Essential Question: What were the
conditions of an enslaved African?
Definition of a slave: A
person who is
forced to be the
property of another
person and is
required to obey
their requests.
The Slave Trade
Between the 1500s and the 1800s it is
estimated that over 11 million Africans were
captured, shipped across the Atlantic Ocean,
and sold as slaves in the Americas.
The Slave Trade
Between the 1500s and the 1800s it is
estimated that over 11 million Africans were
captured, shipped across the Atlantic Ocean,
and sold as slaves in the Americas.
Origins of Slave Trade
Slavery
has existed
in many parts of the
world
People forced into
slavery came from
different walks of life
Farmers, merchants,
priests, soldiers, or
musicians; fathers
and mothers, sons
and daughters.
Native American Slaves
Europeans tried to use Native
Indians as slaves, but they were
ineffective.
1. They would run away! (they
knew the land)
2. They became ill and died from
European diseases.
3. They were not used to harsh
working conditions.
Why use Africans?


Desperate for
laborers slavery
was an acceptable
solution. No Equality
considered
They did not know
territory which
made running away
more difficult. Unlike
the Native
Americans

Africans knew
agriculture were
strong and resisted
diseases.
Why use Africans?


Desperate for
laborers slavery
was an acceptable
solution. No Equality
considered
They did not know
territory which
made running away
more difficult. Unlike
the Native
Americans

Africans knew
agriculture ,were
strong and resisted
diseases.
Trade Network
Captured Africans became part of network
called the triangular trade
First
leg of triangle, ships carrying European
goods to Africa to be exchanged for slaves
Second
leg, Middle Passage, brought
Africans to Americas to be sold.
Third
leg carried American products to Europe.
Trade Network
Captured Africans became part of
network called the triangular trade
First
leg of triangle, ships carrying European
goods to Africa to be exchanged for slaves
Second
leg, Middle Passage, brought
Africans to Americas to be sold.
Third
leg carried American products to
Europe.
Triangle Trade
North America
Molasses
Rum, weapons
The Carribean
Africa
Slaves
125
The Middle Passage
The Middle Passage
•
Terrifying
•
Africans chained
together, forced into
dark, cramped quarters
below ship’s decks.
•
Could neither sit nor
stand
•
Journey lasted three to
six weeks, ten to twenty
percent did not survive
Horrific Conditions
• Olaudah Equiano wrote about
conditions on slave ship:
• “The stench of the hold…was so
intolerably loathsome, that it was
dangerous to remain there for any
time…
• “The shrieks of the women, and
the groans of the dying, rendered
the whole scene of horror almost
inconceivable.”
The Middle Passage
•
Terrifying
•
Africans chained together,
forced into dark, cramped
quarters below ship’s
decks.
•
Could neither sit nor stand
•
Journey lasted three to six
weeks, ten to twenty
percent did not survive
Horrific Conditions
• Olaudah Equiano wrote about
conditions on slave ship:
• “The stench of the hold…was so
intolerably loathsome, that it was
dangerous to remain there for any
time…
• “The shrieks of the women, and
the groans of the dying, rendered
the whole scene of horror almost
inconceivable.”
Tight Packing example
The Middle Passage
•Journey over the Atlantic Oceananywhere from 30-90 days.
•400-600 people in a boat with little air
& much disease.
•Tight Packing-Higher mortality rates
but even higher profits!
•Lower Packing-less mortality, less profit!
131
Interior of a Slave Ship, a woodcut illustration from the
publication, A History of the Amistad Captives, reveals how
hundreds of slaves could be held within a slave ship. Tightly
packed and confined in an area with just barely enough
room to sit up, slaves were known to die from a lack of
breathable air.
• Africans were crowded and chained cruelly aboard slave
ships.
"...the excessive heat was not the only thing that
rendered their situation intolerable. The deck, that is
the floor of their rooms, was so covered with the
blood and mucus which had proceeded from them in
consequence of the flux, that it resembled a
slaughterhouse."
Taken from Alexander Falconbridge, a surgeon aboard
slave ships and later the governor of a British colony for
freed slaves in Sierra Leone.
Frequently, slaves were permitted on deck in small groups
for brief periods, where the crew would encourage, and
many times force, captives to dance for exercise.
Heading for Jamaica in 1781, the ship Zong was nearing the
end of its voyage. It had been twelve weeks since it had sailed
from the west African coast with its cargo of 417 slaves. Water
was running out. Then, compounding the problem, there was
an outbreak of disease. The ship's captain, reasoning that the
slaves were going to die anyway, made a decision. In order to
reduce the owner's losses he would throw overboard the slaves
thought to be too sick to recover. The voyage was insured, but
the insurance would not pay for sick slaves or even those killed
by illness. However, it would cover slaves lost through
drowning.
The captain gave the order; 54 Africans were chained together,
then thrown overboard. Another 78 were drowned over the next
two days. By the time the ship had reached the Caribbean,132
persons had been murdered.
Hear a BBC dramatization of Olaudah Equiano's account
of his experiences
"I was soon put down under the decks, and
there I received such a salutation in my nostrils as I
had never experienced in my life: so that, with the
loathsomeness of the stench, and crying together, I
became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor
had I the least desire to taste anything.
I now wished for the last friend, death, to
relieve me; but soon, to my grief, two of the white
men offered me eatables; and on my refusing to eat,
one of them held me fast by the hands and laid me
across I think the windlass, and tied my feet, while
the other flogged me severely.”
- Olaudah Equiano, giving the first eyewitness account of life
on a ship from a slave's point of view.
• Diseases, such as dysentery, malaria, and smallpox killed
thousands of Africans.
• From 13% - 20% of the Africans aboard slave ships died
during the Middle Passage.
• Between 1699 and
1845 there were 55
successful African
uprisings on slave
ships.
William Snelgrave,
from A New Account
of Some Parts of
Guinea, and the Slave
Trade
Can you imagine?
One drowned trying to save her baby that was
thrown overboard. The other woman, who also
jumped overboard to save her baby was rescued.
However, she later jumped over again,
committing suicide.
• Many Africans committed suicide because of their inhumane
treatment.
Ankle Shackels
This engraving, entitled An African man being inspected for
sale into slavery while a white man talks with African slave
traders, appeared in the detailed account of a former slave
ship captain and was published in 1854.
Slave Life
80-90% worked in the
fields and the others
were house slaves.
Here again cruelty,
beatings and
separation from family
were common.
Escape was brutally
punished-made an
example
Uprisings led to
harsher conditions.
Slave Life
80-90% worked in the
fields and the others
were house slaves.
Here again cruelty,
beatings and
separation from family
were common.
Escape was brutally
punished-made an
example
Uprisings led to harsher
conditions.
Pictures like these led people to
fight for the end of slavery.
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