Combat Aircraft Survivability

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COMBAT AIRCRAFT SURVIVABILITY
PRESENTED BY:
MOHD AFNAN BIN MOHD SANI
0432107
MUHAMMAD FAIRUZI BIN MOHD YUSOF 0432803
MOHD ZAIME BIN MISRI
0435635
Video of an aircraft (MIG-21) that was attacked by missile
Aircraft combat survivability (ACS) is
defined as the capability of an aircraft to
avoid or withstand a man-made hostile
environment including both man-made and
naturally occurring environments, such as
lightning strikes, mid-air collisions, and
crashes
It can be measured by the probability the
aircraft survives an encounter (combat)
with the environment
The traditional discipline known as system
safety attempts to minimize those
conditions known as hazards that can lead
to a mishap in environments that are not
made hostile by man
Thus, together, the system safety and
survivability disciplines attempt to maintain
safe operation and maximize the survival
of aircraft in all environments in both
peacetime and wartime.
The survivability of an aircraft is related to
the aircraft's killability, or susceptibility and
vulnerability, by the equation
PS = 1 - PK
= 1 - PHPK|H
Survivability = 1 – Killability
= 1 - Susceptibility • Vulnerability
Thus, an aircraft's combat survivability is
enhanced when it's killability is reduced.
The killability of an aircraft is reduced
when the susceptibility and the
vulnerability of the aircraft are reduced
What is aircraft susceptibility?
Susceptibility is the inability of an
aircraft to avoid
Guns
Missiles
Air interceptors
Radars
6
 The important susceptibility measures is probability of detection
by the enemy
 Its strongly dependant upon the size of the signature of the
aircraft
Aircraft signature
 radar signature
 visual signature
 infrared signature
 aural signature
7
Radar signature
When the signal passes over the aircraft
 A portion of the incident power absorbed as heat
 Another portion pass completely through parts of
the aircraft
 The remainder is radiated or scattered in many
different directions
8
Various scattering surfaces on an airplane
9
Typical radar sparkle points on a helicopter
10
IR signature
General sources of IR signature are radiation emitted by
•
airframe and propulsion system
•
exhaust gas and plume from the engine
typical major IR sources
11
Two IR seekers (+) tracking flares
12
IR image of a Dauphin helicopter at night
13
Visual signature
o The visual detect ability of an aircraft is dependent the
difference between the background and the aircraft.
o Aircraft detection occur when the aircraft luminance is
too low compared with its background
Camouflage of fighter aircraft
14
Aural signature
 Aircraft are often heard before seen by ground
observer
 Primarily as a result of engine or rotor blade
noise
Example
Low-flying helicopters sound can heard as 30s
before they become visible because of rotor
blade noise
15
Design for Low Susceptibility





5 susceptibility reduction concepts
Signature reduction
Threat warning
Radar deception
Expendables
Weapons and tactics, flight
performance and crew training
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Reduction of radar signature

Reflection of the radar signal away from the
receiving antenna
a. shaping and orienting conducting surface
b. aligning all edges in few direction

Absorption radar signal using special Radar
Absorbent Materials RAM) or Radar
Absorbent Structures called RAS
17
Reduction of infrared signature (IR)




Reduce the temperature of the hot parts
Reduce the surface emissivity of the hot parts
Reduce the temperature of the exhaust
Reduce or mask the observable surface
radiating area
 For reflecting surfaces reduce the surface
reflectivity
18
Example on how to reduce IR signature from engine
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Threat warning
The system has been build to warn the pilot if they are
being targeted by enemy
Example

Radar Warning Receivers (RWR)

Missile Approach and Warning System (MWS)
20
Radar deception
Deception system consists of those electronic
techniques that present false target information to the
radar
General approaches for deception
 To provide incorrect target bearing, range, or velocity
information to the radar
21
Expendables
Material or devices to be ejected from an aircraft
for the purpose of denying or deceiving threat
tracking system for limited period
Example
Chaff (confuse radar)
Aerosols
Flares (IR decoy)
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• IR flares to decoy an infrared (IR) guided missile
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Weapons and tactics, flight performance and
crew training and proficiency
This last concept is somewhat of a catch
all concept. It combines all of the
operational aspects
24
Vulnerability
Aircraft vulnerability refers to the
inability of the aircraft to withstand the
damage caused by the man made
hostile environment, to its liability to
serious damage or destruction when hit
by enemy fire. Aircraft that are more
vulnerable are softer, where as those
are less vulnerable are harder.
Type of aircraft kill
1. Attrition kill category
Kill level
KK
Definition
Aircraft destroyed immediately after being hit
K
Aircraft fall out of control within 30 seconds
after being hit
A
Aircraft fall out of control within 5 minutes after
being hit
B
Aircraft fall out of control within 30 minutes
after being hit
C
Aircraft fall out of control before completion of
the mission objectives.
2. Mission abort kill category

prevents an aircraft from completing its designated
mission and minimum flying qualities remains after the hit
3. Mission denial kill category

aircraft is hit and the pilot unable to control the aircraft,
and aborts the mission because of the aircraft damage.
(Mission objectives does not achieved)
4. Landing kill category

Carrier base aircraft are able to return to the carrier but
cannot land because of the damage to the tail hook.
5. Forced landing category

It is helicopter kill category in which damage to the
helicopter causes the pilot to land (powered or
unpowered) because of receiving the indication of
component damage.
Critical components kill modes.
1. Component dysfunction, damage, failure or kill

The inability of a component to provide the function it was
designed
2. Components kill modes.

failure modes and damage modes
3. System kill modes
4. Loss-of-function kill modes

Loss of essential functions
5. Cascading-damage kill modes.

When a damage component that can kill other critical
component
Vulnerability reduction concepts
1. Component redundancy



total redundancy and partially redundancy
dual electrical generators where a single generator
only powers some of the aircraft systems
dual power control hydraulic subsystems
2. Component location

positioning critical components that can reduce the
probability of lethal damage
3. Passive damage suppression

providing redundant load path in critical structural
elements such as multispar wings
4. Active damage suppression

fire detection and extinguishing system that uses a
detector to sense an ignition source of high
temperature area
5. Component shielding

Providing armor material to the critical components as
a shields
6. Component elimination or replacement

replacing a fuel-feed boost pump with a fuel-feed
suction device
Some Survivability Enhancement
• Speed and altitude
•Maneuverability/agility
•Chaff and flares
•Fighter escort
•Self-repairing flight controls
•No fuel adjacent to air inlets
•Self defense missiles and guns
•Good target acquisition capability
•Night-time capability
•Crew situational awareness & Tactics
•Threat warning system
•More than one engine – separated
•Low signatures
•Antiradiation weapons
•Nonflammable hydraulic fluid
CONCLUSION
The survivability community must apply
lessons learned from combat and tests to
improve future system design,
performance capability, and survivability
against anticipated lethal and nonlethal
threats. So, to increase the survivability of
combat aircraft we have to decrease the
susceptibility and vulnerability of the
aircraft.
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