Intermodal

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Concept 1
Transportation Modes: An Overview
Modal Competition
Infrastructure / Route
Mode
B
1
B
2
B
B
B
A
A
5
4
3
Market Area
6
A
A
A
Performance Comparison for Selected Freight Modes
Vehicle
Barge
15 barges on tow
Hopper car
100 car train unit
Semi-trailer truck
Capacity
1500 Tons
52,500 Bushels
453,600 Gallons
22,500 Tons
787,500 Bushels
6,804,000 Gallons
Equivalency
NA
1
100 Tons
3,500 Bushels
30,240 Gallons
225
10,000 Tons
350,000 Bushels
3,024,000 Gallons
2.25
26 Tons
910 Bushels
7,865 Gallons
870
Concept 2
Land Transport
Linearity, Capacity and Surface of Roads
Hard Surface
Wheeled vehicle
Capacity
2 domestic
animals
1 or 2 domestic
animals
1 domestic
animal
Soft Surface
1 person
Linearity
The Interstate Highway System
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I205
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I315
I82
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I105
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I84
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I535
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I91
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I86
I90
I29
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I15
I505
I680
I696
I280
I480
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I270
I64
I55
I295
I164
I135
I265
I581
I24
I44
I181
I35
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I405
I805
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I40
I540
I430
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I19
I85
I565
I65
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I185
I35W
I10
I73
I124
I240
I285
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I77
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I27
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I640
I155
I244
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I79
I275
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I515
I676
I83
I470
I57
I70 L
I81
I99
I71
I39
I72
I435
I78
I76
I74
I229
I70
I25
I180
I290
I88
I69
I235
I80
I390
I271
I380
I520
I16
I526
I95
I20
I49
I45
I59
I75
I110
I12
I210
I610
I410
I510
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I37
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100
200
I787
I87
I96
I894
I129
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I43
400
600
800
Miles
I495
I395
Geographical Settings of Rail Lines
Penetration Lines
Local / Regional Networks Transcontinental Lines
Nation A
Nation B
Bypassing Effect of a High Speed Railway
A
B
Concept 3
Maritime Transport
Domains of Maritime Circulation
St. Lawrence / Great Lakes
Rhine / Ruhr / Danube
Gibraltar
Mississippi
Panama
Nile
Bosporus
Suez
Bab el-Mandab
Amazon
Good Hope
Magellan
Hormuz
Yangtze
Chang Jiang
Perl
Mekong
Malacca
Types of Maritime Routes
Port-to-Port
Pendulum
Round-the-World
Evergreen Round-the-World Route, Westbound
New York
Norfolk
Charleston
Los Angeles
Pusan Tokyo
Hong Kong
Laem Chabang
Colon
Columbo
Thamesport
Hamburg
Rotterdam
Zeebrugge
Le Havre
Osaka
Hakata
Kaohsiung
Pendulum Route: OOCL Container Services on the North Atlantic,
2006
Atlantic Ocean
Boston
New York
Norfolk
Savannah
Jacksonville
Houston
Miami
Felixstowe
Bremenhaven
Rotterdam
Le Havre
NAX-1
NAX-2
Cabotage and Pendulum Service
Country 1
A
D
B
E
Cabotage
C
F
Country 2
Maritime Enclaves and Accessibility
Less than 700 km
More than 700 km
Maritime Enclave
Maritime Shipping Characteristics
Concept 4
Air Transport
Air Freedom Rights
First
Home
Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth
Sixth
Seventh
Eight
Ninth
Country B
Country A
Airline Deregulation and Hub-and-Spoke Networks
Before Deregulation
After Deregulation
Hub
Hub
Major Air Traffic Flows Between Regions, 2000 (% of IATA
Scheduled Passengers)
North America
1.7
3.9
Europe
23.2
35.5
1.8
15.9
1.3
1.5
Middle East
Central America
1.3
South America
1.7
1.7
1.9
Asia
1.1
Africa
Southwest Pacific
3.2
2.6
Concept 5
Intermodal Transportation
Intermodal Transport Chain
Composition
Interchange
Connection
Local / Regional Distribution
Decomposition
National / International Distribution
Transport Terminal
Piggyback and Doublestack Train Cars
Piggyback (TOFC)
40’ (12.2 m)
9’ (2.7 m)
17’ (2.7 m)
85’ (25.9 m)
18’ (5.5 m)
Doublestack (COFC)
65’ (19.8 m)
Multimodal and Intermodal Transportation
Multimodal Point-to-Point Network
C
A
Intermodal Integrated Network
C
A
B
B
Transshipment
Rail
Road
D
D
Transshipment
F
E
F
E
Transport costs per unit
Distance, Modal Choice and Transport Costs
C1
Road
C2
C3
Rail
D1
Maritime
D2
Distance
Locality
Region
Nation
Articulation points
Distribution centers
Multimodal Transport System
Terminals
Flows
Transshipment
Modal Function
Competition / Cooperation
Handling
Intermodal Function
Maritime / Land interface
Driving Forces of Containerization and Multimodal Transport
Containerization
Unitization
Cellular ships
Specialized
terminals
Land
consumption
Standardization
Gantry cranes
Transshipment
productivity
Multi-rate
structure
Management and
coordination
Mergers
Modal integration
Logistics
Control over
cargo
Multimodal
operators
Through rates
and billing
Deregulation
Multimodal Transportation
Intermodal Transportation Cost Function
C(T)
Local / Regional Distribution Cost
Decomposition
C(dc)
Connection
C(cn)
Costs
National / International Distribution Cost
C(I)
Interchange
C(cn)
Connection
Composition C(cp)
Origin
Transshipment
Destination
Impacts of River / Sea Shipping
Origin
Road / Rail
Road / Rail
Fluvial Port
Fluvial
Seaport
Maritime
Maritime
River/sea
Fluvial
Road / Rail
Road / Rail
Destination
A
B
C
Five Generations of Containerships
First Generation (1956-1970)
Length Draft
135 m
Converted Cargo Vessel
Converted Tanker
TEU
500
<9m
800
200 m
Second Generation (1970-1980)
Cellular Containership
215 m
10 m
1,000 –
2,500
Third Generation (1980-1988)
3,000
250 m
11-12 m
Panamax Class
4,000
290 m
Fourth Generation (1988-2000)
Post Panamax
275 –
305 m
4,000 –
11-13 m 5,000
335 m
13-14 m
Fifth Generation (2000-?)
Post Panamax Plus
5,000 –
8,000
Pipeline System

Trend: Apply electric motors
Provide an ideal system for freight transportation over a
much longer distance at a relatively high efficiency and less
environment pollution
Trans-European Network
•
Develop efficient interfaces between different modes of transportation
•
Promotes the interoperability and interconnectivity of different modes (intermodality)
Underground Freight Transportation (UFT)
Sustainable development:
Environmental
Economic
Social
Could be achieved by:
New means of transport
UFT
Definition:
Network of underground pipelines along which packed goods can
be transported in an efficient way.
Traditional underground systems have existed for more than 200
years. Moving efficiently liquid freight and passengers.
UFT: Artist Impression
Underground Freight Transportation (UFT)

Provides a solution to congestion

Electrically driven, less pollution

Automated driverless operation, short intervals
between trains, optimizing the use of infrastructure
and high speed

Barriers: Financial and social acceptance
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