Infrared Waves

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By Caroline Ayinon, Deanna Cortina, Jackie Ly, and Tatiana Yugay
Characteristics of Infrared Waves
•Infrared waves lie between microwaves
and visible waves.
•Wavelength: 7.5 x 10-7 to 0.001 Meters
Shorter Wavelengths
• “Near infrared” light is not hot at all.
• Waves are about the size of
microscopic cells.
http://www.astrobio.net/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2009/11/114284main_em_
spectrum5002-450x285.jpg
Longer Wavelengths
• Waves are able pass through clouds of
dust, water vapor.
• Waves are thermal.
• Waves are about the size of a pin
head.
•Frequency: 8 x 1010 to 4 x 1014 Hertz
Applications of Infrared Waves
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Astronomy: Infrared Telescopes
•Telescopes reveal information about the universe which
the visible light technology cannot detect.
•Objects like the center of our galaxy, which we can't see in
visible light because dust clouds are in the way can be
"seen" by looking at the infrared light given off.
•Infrared Telescopes are typically placed in high and dry
areas like the mountains of Hawaii.
Heat
•The higher the temperature, the more rays. If the
temperature is very high there will be rays of visible and
infrared light.
•The biggest source of radiation heat is the sun. Its
infrared radiation heats the earth’s atmosphere.
http://image.made-inchina.com/2f0j00vBMaORjhnicG/InfraredLamp-PAR38-for-Piglet.jpg
•There are infrared heaters that are used to treat muscle
injuries. The heat stimulates blood flow, speeding up
the heating process.
Applications of Infrared Waves
Photography: Thermography
•Thermography is used to determine the
relative temperature of objects by detecting
amounts of radiation it produces.
•Thermograms use light sensitive crystals to
generate electrical information which
converts into an image.
•Theromography is also a form of night
vision.
http://www.goinfrared.com/imag
es/gallery/F185_ir.jpg
http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/com
et/gif/palomar1.jpg
Warfare: Heat Seeking Missiles
•Missiles are sent out to follow their
targets based on their infrared
radiation.
Meteorology: Weather Satellites
•Infrared technology is used to
determine water temperature, map cloud
patterns, and make weather predictions.
http://www.wunderground.com/data/640x480/2xg1_ir_a
nim.gif
Visibility
Animals
•Snakes in the pit viper family, like
rattlesnakes, have sensory “pits” to
seek prey.
•Snakes with two sensory pits have
depth perception in the infrared.
•Flickering tongues of snakes are
equipped with infrared heat
sensors that help with finding
warm bodies of their prey.
Technology
•Infrared can be seen through special
cameras and film that detect the
difference in temperature and assign
different colors to them.
Red arrows
point to the pits
http://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/
47/The_Pit_Organs_of_Two_
Different_Snakes.jpg/220pxThe_Pit_Organs_of_Two_Dif
ferent_Snakes.jpg
Humans
http://www.enjoyspace.com/uploads/editoria
l_cases/juin2009/herschel/infraredspitzer.jpg
•Infrared is an invisible form of
energy.
•Humans cannot see infrared
light with the naked eye, but can
feel it as heat.
http://www.cognizance
.org.in/main/pages/tec
hexpo/Infrared.jpg
History
Discovered by William Herschel, a German born British
musician and self-taught astronomer in 1800.
• He split sunlight using prism
into a spectrum of visible light.
• He placed a thermometer just
outside of the red end of color
spectrum and there was a large
temperature increase.
•He noticed that the
temperature was high even if
there was no light. This meant
invisible rays were also emitted.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Dispersi
ve_Prism_Illustration_by_Spigget.jpg
Facts
•Infrared waves are not dangerous to humans unless concentrated in
one spot.
•Humans, animals, the Earth, the Sun, stars and galaxies and even
ice radiate infrared light.
Infrared Spectroscopy
• The study of how materials respond to exposure to infrared light.
•Different materials absorb infrared differently.
•Example:
Glass allows visible light to pass through but traps infrared
light instead of transmitting it
Bibliography

Bloomfield, Louis A. How Things Work: the Physics of Everyday Life. New York: J. Wiley, 1997. Print.

"Infrared Rays." The World Book Student Discovery Science Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. Chicago: World Book, 2006. 27. Print.

"Infrared Radiation." Encyclopedia of Earth and Physical Sciences. Vol. 5. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1998. 604-05. Print.

Tesler, P. "Infrared Radiation." Marshall Cavendish Digital, 2010. Web. 7 May 2010.
<http://www.marshallcavendishdigital.com/articledisplayresult/2/685/3928>.

"Cool Cosmos." Welcome to Cool Cosmos! Web. 07 May 2010. <http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_kids/learn_ir/index.html>.

"Light - Infrared Rays." Oracle ThinkQuest Library. Web. 07 May 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/C006027/html-ver/es-infra.html>.

"Uses for Infrared Light | EHow.com." EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles. Web. 07 May 2010.
<http://www.ehow.com/facts_5454589_uses-infrared-light.html>.

"Infrared Radiation." World of Scientific Discovery. Ed. Kimberley A. McGrath and Bridget Travers. Online. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2007.
Science Resource Center. Gale. 08 May 2010
<http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SciRC?locID=mlin_m_nnorth&bi=SU&bt=infrared+radiation&c=3&t=1&ste=21&docNum=CV1648500320&st=b&tc=15&tf=0>

"NOVA Online | Death Star | Tour the Spectrum (Flash)." PBS. Web. 08 May 2010.
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/gamma/spec_flash.html>.

"radiation." Compton's by Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 8 May 2010 .
<http://school.eb.com/all/comptons/article-207068?query=infrared&ct=>

"SHORT AND MEMORABLE LIGHT FACTS." Center for Science Education at SSL UC Berkeley Home. Web. 08 May 2010.
<http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/light/christian.html>.

"Electro Magnetic Spectrum." Discovery Education Classroom Resources. Web. 07 May 2010.
<http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/interact/electromagneticspectrum.html>.

Netting, Ruth. "Infrared Waves." NASA Science. 27 Mar. 2007. Web. 07 May 2010.
<http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/infrared.html>.
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