Correct answer 3 - Respiratory system

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For staff with direct patient
contact who work with
children and infants
Assessment
1. What is the most likely physiological origin
of a cardiac arrest in infants and children?
33%
33%
33%
1. Cardiac system
2. Respiratory system
3. Central nervous system
1
2
3
Correct answer 3 - Respiratory system
Cardiac arrests in adults are predominately of a cardiac origin,
whereas asphyxial (respiratory) arrest is a more likely
occurrence in children. Untreated, this may lead to a cardiac
arrest.
Understanding this is important, as a slightly different approach
for paediatric basic life support has been developed with a focus
on providing initial breaths before starting chest compressions.
2. What is the definition of an infant for
paediatric resuscitation purposes?
33%
33%
33%
1. Post birth to 5 years
2. 1 year to 5 years
3. Post birth to 1 year
1
2
3
Correct answer 3 - Post birth to 1 year.
Infant – post birth to 1 year
Child – 1 year to post puberty
If a lay rescuer with no specific knowledge of
paediatric resuscitation, they should use the adult
sequence.
Just slight modifications will make the technique
more suitable and hopefully effective for use in
children.
3. Which of the following is the recommended
technique for opening a child victim’s airway
during basic life support?
50%
50%
1. Jaw thrust
2. Head tilt, chin lift
1
2
Correct answer 2 - Head tilt, chin lift
 The head-tilt chin-lift is the most reliable method of opening the
airway and is the primary manoeuvre used in any infant or child
in whom cervical spine injury is not a concern.
 It is the simplest way of ensuring an open airway in an
unconscious child. The technique lifts the tongue from the back
of the throat thus opening the airway.
 The jaw-thrust manoeuvre is an effective technique for opening
the airway, particularly in a victim in whom cervical spine injury
is a concern.
 The technique is not advocated for use by lay rescuers or
inexperienced health care personnel.
4. Which is not a reason why it’s important to only
very gently stimulate infants and children who
have collapsed to check their response?
33%
33%
33%
1. You might frighten
them
2. They may have a
cervical spine injury
3. Shaking infants and
small children can
cause brain injury
1
2
3
Correct answer 1 - You might frighten them
Infants and children should not be shaken. The anatomy
of their brains are very delicate and this puts them at
particular risk of neurological injury if shaken to
vigorously.
In addition, the child may have a cervical spine injury,
particularly if they have collapsed because of an
accident or trauma.
5. How long should you take to check if a
collapsed infant or child is breathing normally?
25%
25%
25%
2
3
25%
1. As long as it takes
2. 20 seconds
3. No more than 10
seconds
4. Don’t bother to check
because it’s not
important to check
breathing in a collapsed
child victim
1
4
Correct answer 3 - No more than 10 seconds
Studies have shown that checking for normal breathing is
prone to error, particularly as agonal gasps are often
misdiagnosed as normal breathing.
If you have any doubt as to whether the breathing is
normal or not, act as if it’s not normal.
6. If you assess an infant or child and find they are
not breathing, should you give them 5 rescue
breaths before assessing their circulation?
50%
50%
1. Yes
2. No
1
2
Correct answer 1 - Yes
When an infant or child suddenly collapses it is often
respiratory related. Therefore it is important to give up to 5
rescue breaths before checking their circulation. You
should look for any gag reflex or coughing response to
giving rescue breaths.
7. What depth should an infant or child’s chest
be compressed to during cardiac
compressions?
33%
33%
33%
1. 1/2 of the depth
of the chest
2. 2 cm
3. At least 1/3 of the
depth of the
chest
1
2
3
Correct answer 3 - At least 1/3 of the depth of
the chest
There is evidence to suggest that when chest compressions
are carried out on both adults and children, they are
frequently too shallow. In both infant and child victims the
chest should be compressed to at least 1/3 of the depth of
the chest.
Infants approximately 4 cms
Child approximately 5 cms.
Don’t be afraid to push too hard.
8. What is the recommended ratio of chest
compression to rescue breaths in an infant
or child victim?
33%
33%
33%
1. 15 compressions + 2
breaths
2. 20 compressions + 5
breaths
3. 30 compressions + 2
breaths
1
2
3
Correct answer 1 - 15 compressions + 2
breaths
15 compressions at a repeat rate 100 -120 times per minute
followed by 2 rescue breaths.
Compression and release time should be equal
Depth – at least 1/3 of the depth of the chest
Periodically recheck correct hand positioning if resuming chest
compressions
Interruptions in chest compressions are common and are
associated with reduced chance of survival.
9. A collapsed child victim is not breathing
normally. Which of the following should NOT
be considered when calling for help?
33%
33%
33%
1. Ask someone else to call
2. Use your mobile if you’re on
your own
3. Only leave the victim if there
is no other option
4. Take the child to hospital
yourself
1
2
3
Correct answer 4- Take the child to hospital
yourself
Appropriate action at this could save the child’s life and
delay will increase the risk of mortality.
If possible, the victim should not be left alone at any stage.
Ask someone else to call for help.
Use your mobile
10. If an infant victim shows signs of severe
airway obstruction and is conscious you
should firstly give:
33%
33%
33%
1. 5 chest thrusts
2. 5 abdominal thrusts
3. Up to 5 back blows
1
2
3
Correct answer 3 - 5 back blows
You should firstly give up to 5 back blows to an infant victim who
shows signs of severe airway obstruction.
The aim is to relieve the obstruction with each blow rather than
necessarily giving all 5.
If back blows fail to relieve the obstruction, give up to 5 chest
thrusts.
THANK YOU
End of the assessment
Delegate Scores
10
Rachael BYRNE
10
Samantha Elise KEANE
10
Kirsty Anne FORREST
10
Emily Jane GARNETT
10
Hannah Claire STOKES
10
Vicki-lea BELL
10
Anne-Marie BOOTH
9
Emma SADLER
10
Rachel ASTLES
10
Amy GREGORY
10
Ashley-marie SMITH
10
Stacey Barbara HEATH
10
Thomas Luke KELLETT
10
Rachael Victoria JONES
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