Mobile and Pervasive Computing

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SESSION : Mobile Computing and Wireless
Communications -- Overview
•Framework for discussion
•Business drivers: M-Business, MGovernment, M-Life
•Mobile Applications
Platforms to support mobile commerce
Wireless middleware
Wireless Networks
Cellular networks: from 1 to 3G Networks
Wireless LANs
Satellites
Amjad
Umar
Amjad Umar
Overview
•Growing rapidly with many diverse applications
•Many strengths but a few weaknesses
•Different aspects of mobility:
•People (customers, suppliers, employees)
•Devices (laptops, palm pilots, beepers, PDA, sensors)
•Networks: wireless
•Mobile devices and wireless networks are not always same
Mobile
Devices
Wireless
Networks
Sample Applications
No
No
Stationary workstations in office
No
Yes
Wireless LANs to connect office workers in an unwired building
Yes
No
Using a portable computer in a hotel or conference room
Yes
Yes
Cellular phones, Palm Pilots, portable offices,
Amjad Umar
The Jargon
M-Business, M-Government
M-Commerce P-Commerce V-Commerce
M-SCMs M-CRMs SMS MMS M-Portal
Symbian WAP
MMIT WML VXML J2ME BREW
Mobile IP MANET OMA ITU ETSI FCC
Zigbee UWB FSO Bluetooth WLL DECT HomeRF
Wi-Fi GPRS UMTS 802.11 802.16 802.15 WSN
OFDM FEC TDMA CDMA
Amjad Umar
Framework for Discussion
Drivers
Mobile Business, Government, and Life
•Wireless Business,
Regulations, and
Standards
Mobile Computing Applications
Mobile Computing Platforms
(Wireless Middleware, Mobile IP)
•Architectures and
Integration
•Wireless Security
Wireless Networks
(Wireless LANs, Cellular Networks,
Satellites, Wireless Local Loops)
Enablers
Amjad Umar
•Management and
Support
Mobile Computing Applications
• Enable the business initiatives by supporting mobility of
– Customers
– Suppliers and Businesses
– Employees
• Mobile computing applications
– Wireless messaging (e.g., SMS)
– Mobile ecommerce (M-Commerce) and its variants
• Positional commerce (p-commerce) .
• Voice commerce (v-commerce).
• Television commerce (T-Commerce)
– Mobile ebusiness applications (MEBAs), e.g., M-CRM, M-portal
– Specialized applications
• Location sensitive apps
• Wireless sensor network apps
• Mobile agent apps
• Two views:
– Mobile applications are fundamentally new applications.
– Mobility is another dimension of the existing applications
Amjad Umar
Mobile Computing Applications Categorization
B2B
C2B, B2C
B2E, E2B
Business
Consumer
Employees
B2G, G2B
C2G, G2C
Citizens
E2G, G2E
Government
G2G
Amjad Umar
Employees
Mobile Computing Platforms
Server
(Web Server, eMail server,
Mainframe)
Mobile Device
(Cell Phone, PDA, Pocket PC)
Application
Application
Middleware
Services
Local
Platform
Services
Network
Transport
Services
Mobile
Computing
Platform
Middleware
Services
Local
Platform
Services
Physical Wireless Network
(Antennas, Transceivers, Base Stations,
Cellular Networks, 802.11 LANs,
Satellites)
Amjad Umar
Network
Transport
Services
Internet as the Network Platform
www.sun.com
arts.um.edu
108.2.11.7
75.10.17.3
IP
WAN3
IP
www.IBM.com
WAN2
Switch
/Gateway
cs.um.edu
108.2.11.5
75.10.17.1
Switch/Gateway
Switch/Gateway
IP
WAN1
Bank1.co..uk
(Typically
ATM,
83.13.17.3
Frame Relay,
Level3.co..uk
X.25)
83.13.17.4
•DNS (Domain Name Services) translates cs.um.edu to 108.2.11.5
•Telnet cs.um.edu = Telnet 108.2.11.5
•FTP cs.um.edu = FTP 108.2.11.5
Amjad Umar
Wireless Web
Wireless
Browser
4
Wireless
Network
Wireless
Gateway
http
5
Web
Server
2
1
Web
Browser
http
over
wired Internet
3
Web
Gateway
Content
(XML/HTML)
Back-end
Systems
and
Darabases
1. Access from Web browser to Web Server over wired Internet
2. Access to Web contents from HTML/XML files
3. Access to non-Web content through a Web gateway
4. Access from cellular phone over a wireless network
5. Access from wireless gateway to Web Server over wired Internet
Amjad Umar
WAP(Wireless Application Protocol)
•Intended for data entry/display on cellular phones
•“An open, global specification that empowers mobile users with wireless devices to
easily access and interact with information and services instantly.” www.wapforum.org
•Complete protocol stack similar to Internet protocols but optimized for wireless
information pull and push transport layer and above; across multiple wireless technologie
Amjad Umar
WIRELESS NETWORKS
Different type of wireless networks support mobile
computing applications and platforms
• Cellular networks
– 1G to 5G
•
•
•
•
•
Wireless LANs (802.11)
Bluetooth
Satellite systems
Fixed Wireless Local loops
Mobile Adhoc Networks
Amjad Umar
Wireless Networks
Wireless MANs
Wireless LANs
Personal
Area
Networks
Business
LANs
Example1:
Bluetooth
1 Mbps,
10 Meters
Example1:
802.11b
11 Mbps,
100 Meters
Other examples:
wireless sensor
networks, UWB
Other
examples:
802.11g,
HiperLAN2
Wireless WANs
Cellular
Networks
Wireless
Local Loops
(Fixed Wireless)
Example1:
LMDS
37 Mbps,
2-4 Km
Example2:
FSO
1.25 Gbps
1-2 KM
Example1:
GSM, 9.6 Kbps,
wide coverage
Example2:
3G, 2 Mbps,
wide coverage
Amjad Umar
Satellite
Systems
Example1:
Motorola
Iridium
up to 64 Mbps
globally
Example 2:
Deep space
communication
Paging
Networks
Example1:
FLEX,
1.2 Kbps
Example2:
ReFLEX,
6.4Kbps
Wired
Local Area Networks (LANs)
Metropolitan Area Networks
(MANs)
Wide Area Networks (WANs)
Wired LANs
Wired MANs
Wired WANs
Ethernet (10-100 Mbps, 150 to
500 meters)
FDDI (100 Mbps, 50 Kilometers)
ATM (44 Mbps to 140 Mbps)
Frame Relay (44 Mbps)
Token Ring (4 -16 Mbps, 200 to
500 meters)
Wireless
Wireless LANs
Wireless MANs
Wireless WANs
Bluetooth (1 Mbps, 10 meters)
wireless local loops (10 Mbps,
100 Kilometers)
Current GSM systems at
9.6Kbps, future 3G systems at 2
Mbps
IEEE 802.11 LANs (2-11 Mbps,
100 meters)
Issues unique to wireless
•Frequency allocation
•Multiple Access
•Location
Amjad Umar
A Sample Wireless School
Link to
Public Ethernet
C
T1
or
DSL
D
LAN Server
Wireless LAN
Cell
Wireless LAN
Cell
Z
Y
Router
Centrex
Wired Ethernet LAN
•X, Y, Z are
access points
for the wireless
Ethernet LANs
•A, B, C, D are
student laptops
Wireless LAN
Cell
X
A
B
Amjad Umar
Bluetooth
• Founders: Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba; May 98
• Currently: Over 850 companies, V1.0 spec issued 7/99
• Small form factor, low-cost, short range radio link between
mobile PCs, phones and other portable devices
• Relatively fast, short packets
• Software for service and device discovery
• Typical application: cellular phone to PDA or earphone
• Forecast: 79% of digital handsets and > 200 million PCs
will use Bluetooth by 2002 -- Dataquest
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Bluetooth
PSTN
Access
Point
Wired
LAN
Cellular
Network
Bluetooth Piconet
(1 Mbps, 10 meters)
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Wireless Local Loops
Telephone
InterExchange
Switch
Computers
PBX, TV
Toll
Connecting
Trunks
Wireless
Local
Loop
Intertoll
Trunks
Telephone
Wired
Local
Loop
Local
Control
Office
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Toll
Connecting
Trunks
InterExchange
Switch
Cell 1
A Cellular Network
Cell 2
Public
Switched
Telephone
Network
(PSTN)
Mobile
Telephone
Switching
Center
(MTSC)
HLR
VLR
Mobile User
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Cordless connection
HLR = Home Location Register
Wired connection
VLR = Visitor Location Register
Amjad Umar
Cellular networks: What is 3G Anyway?
• 1G: First generation wireless cellular: Early 1980s
– Analog transmission, primarily speech
• 2G: Second generation wireless cellular: Late 1980s
–
–
–
–
Digital transmission
Primarily speech and low bit-rate data
High-tier: GSM, IS-95 (CDMA), etc
Low-tier (PCS): Low-cost, low-power, low-mobility e.g. PACS
• 2.5G: 2G evolved to medium rate (< 100kbps) data
• 3G: future: Broadband multimedia
– 144 kbps - 384 kbps for high-mobility, high coverage
– 2 Mbps for low-mobility and low coverage
Amjad Umar
Evolution to 3G
Data Rates
2 Mbps
3G
(144Kbps to 2Mbps)
1 Mbps
100 Kbps
2.5G
(10-150Kbps)
10 Kbps
1 Kbps
2G
(9.6Kbps)
1G
(<1Kbps)
1980
1990
2000
Years
Amjad Umar
2010
Wireless LANs
• First generation of products at about 1-2 Mbps
– Lucent’s WaveLAN, RadioLAN, etc.
– factor of 10 less bandwidth than current Ethernet
• Next generation of products at 10-11 Mbps
– factor of 10 less bandwidth than 100 Mbps Ethernet
• IEEE 802.11 standard –
– very successful at present (wi-Fi)
– Can deliver up to 64 mbps
• Important niche and enterprise applications (e.g.
hospitals)
• Increasing horizontal market interest (e.g. SOHO)
Amjad Umar
Satellite Communications
Amjad Umar
Other issues
Integration
Security
Management and support
Regulations and standards
Wireless Business and Industry
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Reference
Model
Wireless
Telephone
Business
7. Application
6. Presentation
5. Session
4. Transport
Wireless
Telephony
Applications
and
Services
PSTN
Routing
Wireless Data
Network
Business
Applications
(e.g., SMS,
email,
Wireless Web,
Mobile EC/EB)
Physical Network Elements
1. Physical
Wireless
Application
and
Platform
Management
Wireless
Consulting
Business
Systems
Consulting
IP Data
Network
Routing
3. Network
2. Data Layer
Wireless
Management
Business
(Cellular networks,
Wireless LANs,
Satellites,
Wireless Local Loops)
Amjad Umar
Wireless
Network
Management
Call
Switching
Wireless
Network
Consulting
and
Engineering
Services
Summary
• Mobile applications is a tremendous area of growth
• Business drivers such as M-Business are significant
• Mobile computing platforms have to handle special cases:
– Slow line speeds (19.2 Kbps)
– Congestions are usual
– More error prone
• Different types of wireless networks
–
–
–
–
–
Cellular
Wireless LANs
Satellites
Wireless local loops
Many emerging areas: sensor networks, Mobile Adhoc Networks, Free
Space Optics
• Many issues in Architectures, security and management
• Standards work is also progressing in many areas
Amjad Umar
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