Baking Chapter 21 - Riverdale High School

Ms. Smith
 3.2 Assess the effect of nutrients on health, appearance
and peak performance.
 5.1 Examine the effects of various kitchen designs,
tools, equipment and technology on food preparation.
 What are your favorite things to bake? What kind of
ingredients do you use when baking them? Do you
think that your baked goods are high in fat, sugar, and
calories? Write a paragraph answering these questions
explaining baked goods.
 Identify ingredients you have used in baking.
 All baked products are made from just a few basic
 The different products result from differences in
amounts of ingredients, the order in which the
ingredients are combined, how they are mixed, and
how they are baked.
What are the
differences in
the appearance
and textures of
the products?
 Ingredients common to all baking: Flour, liquid,
leavening agents, fat, sweeteners, eggs, and flavoring.
 Baked goods are generally nutritious, but many are
high in fat, sugar, and calories.
 Flour is one ingredient found in nearly every baked
 The proteins and starch in flour make up most of a
baked product’s structure.
 Gluten, a protein that affects the texture of a baked
product, helps determine how the product will rise.
 All-purpose flour. The most popular flour in
American kitchens. It gives good results for most
 Bread flour. Has the highest gluten content and gives
the bread a strong structure.
 Cake flour. Contains less gluten and gives cakes a
tender structure.
 Whole grain flours have weaker gluten than all-
purpose flour. –Some have no gluten at all.
This is why products made with only whole-grain flour
rise less and have a heavy texture.
Whole-grain flour include wheat, rye, and cornmeal.
To overcome this limitation, whole-grain flours are
generally combined with all-purpose flour in equal
proportion in recipes.
Whole-grain flours need to be stirred rather than
sifted. –Particles are too large to go through a sifter.
Why would some people bake with whole-grain flour?
 Liquids play a role in the many physical and chemical
changes that occur during baking.
 Water and milk are the most common liquids used in
 Milk adds flavor and nutrients, and helps baked goods
brown better.
 To reduce fat in a recipe, use fat-free milk instead of
whole milk.
 What is the difference between a cake that turns out
flat and one that rises nicely?
 A substance that triggers a chemical action causing a
baked product to rise, is called a leavening agent.
 Leaving agents make most baked products less
compact and give them a softer texture.
 AIR is trapped in mixtures as they are beaten. –
creaming fat and sugar, sifting flour, and adding
beaten egg whites all add air to a baked good.
 When the mixture is heated, the trapped air expands
and the product rises. (remember your fluffy waffles)
 STEAM leavens products that contain high amounts of
water. As the product bakes, the water heats, which
eventually turns into steam. It expands, causing the
product to rise. (popovers and cream puffs)
 YEAST is a microorganism that produces carbon
dioxide gas as it grows. It needs food (flour or sugar),
liquid, and a warm temperature to grow.
Different types of yeast: active dry yeast and
quick-rising dry yeast come as dry granules in a
Quick-rising type leavens the dough about twice
as quickly.
Both can be stored at room temperature.
Compressed yeast comes in an individually
wrapped cakes and must be refrigerated.
 BAKING SODA is used whenever the recipe calls for
buttermilk, yogurt, sour milk, or other acidic liquid.
 When combined with these types of liquids, baking
soda produces carbon dioxide gas. This causes cookies,
breads, or cakes to climb. (not flat)
 BAKING POWDER is made of baking soda and a
powdered acid such as cream of tartar.
 Most common type, double-acting baking powder,
releases some carbon dioxide gas when it is first mixed
with a liquid. The remainder is released when it is
 Fat adds richness, flavor, and tenderness. Fats can be
solid or liquid.
 In place of butter or shortening, you can use regular
margarine, but do not use soft, whipped, or liquid
margarine spreads. (solid and liquid fats are not easily
substituted for one another)
 Since fats play a major role in baked products, they
usually can’t be eliminated.
 They can be reduced or partially substituted with other
flavorful ingredients.
 Eggs add flavor, nutrients, richness, and color to baked
 They help form the structure of the baked product.
 When beaten, eggs ad air to the mixture. (fluffy)
 To reduce fat and cholesterol, use two egg whites or ¼
cup liquid egg substitute in place of one whole egg.
 Sugar is the most commonly used sweetener.
 It helps make baked products tender, adds sweetness
and flavor, and helps the crust brown.
 Some sugar substitutes are suitable for baking, but
others are not.
 Store most sweeteners in tightly covered containers in
a cool place.
 Fruits, vegetables, and nuts add flavor, texture, and
nutrients to baked goods.
 Herbs, spices, and extracts are used in small amounts
to add flavor.
 Some sweet spices—for instance, cinnamon and
nutmeg—can actually enhance the flavor enough to
allow you to cut back slightly on sugar.
 When flour and liquid are mixed together, the gluten
in flour develops, or becomes strong and elastic.
When heated, the trapped gases expand and the
product rises.
The longer the mixing time, the greater the extent to
which gluten is developed.
Ex. Ingredients for cakes and quick breads are mixed
only long enough to combine them. (gluten not
strong) (waffle mix)
Yeast breads, on the other hand, are mixed much
longer than cakes. (worked with hands)
 The amount of liquid in relation to the amount of
flour determines whether a mixture is a batter or a
 Batters have more liquids than doughs.
 POUR BATTERS are thin enough to pour in a steady
stream. (cakes, pancakes, and waffles)
 DROP BATTERS are thick and are usually spooned
into pans. (quick breads and cookies)
 SOFT DOUGHS are soft and sticky but can be touched
and handled. (rolled biscuits, yeast breads and rolls,
and some cookies start with soft doughs)
 STIFF DOUGHS are firm to the touch. Easy to work
with and cut, they form the basis for piecrust and
some cookies.
 KNEAD-work the dough with your hands to
thoroughly mix ingredients and develop gluten.
1.) turn the dough out on a very lightly floured surface.
2.) with the heel of your hands, push down on the
edge of the dough nearest you.
3.) fold the dough in half toward you and give it a
quarter turn.
4.) continue pushing, folding, and turning for the
time directed in the recipe.
 Baking pans you choose can affect the results of
 Use the size and type of pan specified in the recipe.
 If the pan is too small, the product will not bake
 The material the pan is made of is also important.
Most recipes are developed for light- colored metal
pans. If you use glass pans, lower the temperature by
25 degree F. Glass retains more heat than metal.
 Baking pans must be properly prepared so that
products can be easily removed from them at the end
of baking.
 Methods for preparing pans:
 GREASE AND FLOUR: lightly grease a pan with fat
and dust it with flour. Use waxed paper to spread the
fat. Sprinkle all-purpose flour into the pan. Tilt the
pan to different angles until the flour is spread evenly.
Turn the pan upside down over the sink, and tap it
gently to remove excess flour.
This is the easiest method, but it may not work with all
products. Follow the directions on the label or in your
 LINE A PAN WITH PAPER. Start by cutting a piece of
cooking parchment the same shape and size as the pan
bottom. Grease the pan and line the bottom with
parchment paper. When the product is removed, peel
the paper off the bottom. This method is used for rich
cakes, such as fruitcakes.
 In a conventional oven, the dry heat creates desirable
Product browns, and depending on ingredients, a
crispy crust may develop.
Baked products do not brown or develop a crust in
microwave because it cooks with moist heat. (sticky
Preheat oven, and before turning on oven make sure
that racks are in proper position.
Begin checking for product doneness about 5 minutes
before time is up.
 Some baked products must be removed immediately
when they come out of the oven.
 Others need to cool for a few minutes in the pan.
 Use cooling racks so that baked goods will cool faster
and stay crisp.
 When baked goods are allowed to cool on a solid
surface, such as a cutting board, moisture collects and
the product can become soggy.
 Perishable baked products, including those with
cream fillings or frostings, have to be refrigerated.
 Studies show that other baked products get stale
quickly when stored at refrigerator temperatures.
 Store them at room temperature if they will be eaten
within 3 days.
 To store them longer, freeze them in airtight freezer
 Nutrients in Quick Breads
 Quick breads can be a tasty way of getting some of the
nutrients your body needs.
 Good sources of carbohydrates, protein, B vitamins,
and iron.
 Using whole grains adds fiber and trace minerals.
 Adding fruits, vegetables, and nuts packs in even more
vitamins and minerals– as well as flavor and texture.
 Muffins are prepared using the muffin method.
 The MOST IMPORTANT part of this procedure is
properly mixing the liquid and dry ingredients.
 Muffins that are properly mixed have a rounded,
pebbly top with a coarse but tender texture inside.
 1.) SIFT (to remove large lumps and pieces) together
or mix all dry ingredients (flour, sugar, baking powder,
spices) in a large bowl. Using the back of a spoon,
make a well in the center of the dry ingredients.
 2.) BEAT all liquid ingredients (eggs, milk or water, oil
or melted fat, liquid flavorings) together in a small
bowl until they are well blended.
 3.) POUR the liquid into the well you have made in
the dry ingredients. A few floury spots can remain,
and the batter should be lumpy.
 4.) FOLD in ingredients such as chopped nuts and
raisins gently.
 Flavors of muffins can easily be varied with different
 Fresh and dried fruits are often included. (cranberries,
blueberries, chopped dates, dried apricots, or your
favor combinations)
 Muffin recipes may often include yogurt, tofu,
shredded raw vegetables (zucchini or carrots), or
cooked vegetables (such as sweet potatoes and winter
 Instead of greasing muffin pans, you can line them
with paper baking cups. (as seen in video)
Fill the cups only two-thirds full. If you add more than
that, batter will overflow and the muffins will have odd
They are done when they are nicely browned.
A wooden pick inserted in the center should come out
Muffins are best served warm.
 Many quick loaf breads are mixed in the same manner
as muffins.
 Some loaf breads are flavored with vegetables and
 Quick breads are generally baked in greased loaf pans.
 Don’t be surprised if the top f the loaf cracks, this is
typical for quick breads.
 Biscuits are delicate, small breads.
 Properly made, they have a tender but crisp crust and
are an even, light brown color.
 The inside is slightly moist and creamy whit, and peels
apart in tender layers.
 2 kinds of biscuits: ROLLED and DROPPED.
 Both are made using the PASTRY and BISCUIT
METHOD of mixing.
 In the pastry and biscuit method, the fat is cut into the
 To CUT IN means to mix solid fat and flour using a
pastry blender or two knives and a cutting motion.
This technique leaves the fat in fine particles in the
 During baking, the fat melts between layers of flour,
giving a flaky texture.
 1.) Sift together or mix the dry ingredients in a large
 2.) Cut the shortening into the flour until the particles
are the size of peas or coarse bread crumbs.
 3.) Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients, as
in the muffin method, and add the liquids. Stir just
until the ingredients are blended and form a soft
--Once you have mixed the dough, you can proceed with
your recipe for either ROLLED or DROP biscuits.
 ROLLED BISCUITS are made by rolling out dough to
an even thickness and cutting it with a biscuit cutter.
(rim of water glass)
 Begin by turning the dough out on a lightly floured
board and kneading about ten strokes.
 Knead as much as possible with the tips of your
fingers, since warmth from your hands may melt the
shortening, causing biscuits to be tough.
 Overkneading results in tough, compact biscuits.
 Next, roll the dough out to a uniform thickness of
about ½ inch. Cut the biscuits out with a biscuit
cutter that is lightly dusted with flour.
Pres the cutter straight down so that the biscuits have
straight sides and even shapes. (do not twist the cutter,
dough might tear)
Reroll any leftover dough to make more biscuits.
Place biscuits on an ungreased baking sheet, about 1
inch apart.
Bake according to recipe directions.
 DROP BISCUITS are made by dropping dough from a
spoon. (because they contain more liquid than rolled)
Ever had Red Lobster biscuits?
They are just as flavorful and flaky as rolled biscuits.
Mix the batter for drop biscuits using the same
method as for rolled biscuits.
Drop the batter in mounds on a greased cookie sheet
about 1 inch apart.
Bake according to recipe directions.
 Biscuits are delicious when they are eaten warm, right
out of the oven.
 Serve them with meals, or use them for sandwiches.
 For variety, they can be topped with gravy or sweet
fruit or cream.
 Biscuits can be made ahead of time, frozen, and then
reheated in the microwave.
 Many people believe that bread baking is too time-
consuming to fit in with today’s fast-paced lifestyles.
 Making yeast dough is a flexible process and can be
timed to fit into your schedule.
 Several appliances can help speed up the bread
making process.
A microwave can be used to heat the liquid before
adding it to the yeast, to bring refrigerated ingredients
to room temperature, and to let the dough rise.
Check owner’s manual for specific directions, which
will vary depending on the oven’s power and controls.
A heavy-duty mixer with a dough hook or a powerful
food processor can be used to mix yeast dough quickly.
These appliances will knead it in about 6 minutes
compared with the 8 or 10 minutes required to knead
it by hand.
 Yeast bread and rolls are both made by using the same
simple five-step procedure.
 The steps include mixing the dough, kneading it,
letting it rise, shaping it, and, finally baking it.
 Most yeast breads are a simple mixture of flour, salt,
sugar, liquid, fat, and yeast.
Sugar provides food for the yeast so that it will grow.
Salt controls the action of the yeast.
Recipes for homemade bread call for all-purpose flour.
(makes loaf with good texture, and more readily
available than bread flour)
Yeast will not grow if the liquid is too cold and will die
if the liquid is too hot. Make sure the ingredients are
at room temperature and the liquid is heated to the
right temperature.
When yeast is added to liquid at the proper temp, the
mixture becomes cloudy and begins to form a foamy
layer within minutes.
 The QUICK-MIX METHOD is a bread-making
method that combines active dry yeast with the dry
 A standard mixer will work for the first part of the
mixing until the dough thickens and becomes too
heavy for it.
 Beat the rest of the flour in with a wooden spoon.
 1.) Combine party of the flour with the un-disolved
active dry yeast, sugar, and salt in a large bowl.
 2.) Heat the liquid and fat to between 120 F and 130 F.
 3.) Add the liquid and dry ingredients, beating them
with a mixer until they are well blended. At this point,
the gluten is beginning to develop.
 4.) Beat in enough of the remaining flour to make the
kind of dough specified in the recipe. You may need
more or less flour than the recipe calls for. Some kinds
absorb more liquid than others.
 Turn the dough out on a lightly floured surface.
 Knead the dough until it becomes a smooth, shiny
ball, about 8 to 10 minutes.
 Use just enough flour to keep the dough from sticking
to the work surface or to your hands.
 Too much flour will give a tough texture.
 Don’t be concerned if bubbles develop, they are a clue
that the gluten is developing.
 Shape the dough into a ball, and place it in a well-oiled
bowl. Turn the ball in the bowl so that all sides are
coated with oil.
 Place a piece of plastic wrap over the top of the dough
to keep it from drying out; then cover the bowl with a
clean dish towel.
 Set the bowl in a warm, draft-free place for about 1 to 1
½ hours. The dough should rise to double the original
size. (bread dough made with whole-grain flour will
take longer to rise)
 Once it has risen, punch the dough down by gently
pressing your fist into the center.
 Gently pull the dough from the sides of the bowl
toward the middle. These actions will eliminate the
largest air bubbles.
 When the ball has doubled in size, the dough is ready
for the fourth stage—shaping.
 To determine if dough is ready, push two fingers gently
into the surface, and if the finger indentations remain,
the dough is ready to shape.
 Shape the dough into loaves or rolls, according to
recipe directions.
Use kitchen scissors or a sharp knife to cut the dough
into pieces.
Don’t pull it apart.
Place it in a greased pan or on a baking sheet.
Cover and let he shaped dough rise again until it
doubles in size.
 Bread and rolls have a nicely browned crust when done
Check loaves for doneness by tapping them with your
finger. If they sound hollow, they are done.
Remove the bread or rolls from the pans, and place
them immediately on a wire cooling rack.
The rack prevents moisture from forming on the
bottom crust and making it soggy.
Let loaves stand about 20 minutes for easier cutting.
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