Quick Breads
Baking soda, baking powder
or steam are used as
Batters and Doughs
Pour batter - liquid to flour ratio = 1:1
Examples: pancakes, popovers, cream
puffs, waffles
Drop batter - liquid to flour ratio = 1:2
Examples: muffins, cakes, quick breads
Soft dough - liquid to flour ratio = 1:3
Examples: biscuits, doughnuts, yeast
Stiff dough - liquid to flour ratio = 1:4
Examples: pie crust, cookies, noodles
Role of Ingredients
Flour - Structure and rigidity due to
coagulated protein and starch
gelatinization. Stretch and elasticity to
hold gas.
Liquid - Dissolves sugar, salt, soda, and
acid. Hydrates protein and starch. Forms
steam for leavening.
Salt - Taste; influences the rate and
degree of flour hydration especially
important in yeast bread.
Leavening agent - Gas or source of gas
which can expand during baking and
cause product to rise.
Fat - Tenderizes product by water
proofing flour thus limiting gluten
Sugar - Tenderizes by decreasing water
uptake by flour, thus interferes with
gluten development. Aids browning.
Eggs - Structure and elasticity from
protein. Aids in air incorporation.
Pancakes, waffles - pour batter
Typically leavened with baking powder or
soda. Tenderness depends on amount of fat
and sugar used. Griddle needs to be hot
enough to cause bubbles to form on top when
cooked. When drying occurs at edge they
can be turned.
Popovers - pour batter
Leavened by steam. Baked at high
temperature to convert water to steam for
leavening. No fat is used so texture is elastic.
Cream puffs - pour batter
Leavened by steam. Cream puffs have 8X
the fat (tenderness) of popovers thus more
eggs are used to provide structure. Texture
is tender and crisp. Preparation: water and
fat are heated in pan, flour added and stirred
to form a ball. Cooled, then egg is mixed in.
Muffins - drop batter
Use muffin method to combine ingredients.
Ideal for gluten development. Mix ingredients
until just moistened. Excess stirring causes
more gluten development and peaked tops
and tunnels.
Quick breads - drop batter
Added ingredients make different
flavors and textures. Banana nut,
cherry nut, date, pumpkin, zucchini, etc.
Biscuits - soft dough
Use biscuit method to combine
ingredients. Because liquid to flour ratio
is 1:3, more manipulation is needed to
develop gluten. Biscuits are kneaded
lightly and rolled. Under or over
manipulation results in a flatter biscuit.
Unleavened Breads – leavened only with
steam. Usually a soft dough that is
steamed, oven- or skillet-baked, fried, or
Types: tortillas, chapatis, crisp flat breads,

Quick breads - Marblehead High School