東漢(一) Eastern Han Dynasty Part I 東漢 Eastern Han Dynasty • 東漢（公元25年-公元220年） •Eastern Han Dynasty, from 25 AD to 220 AD. 東漢的建立 Establishment of Eastern Han Dynasty •公元25年，劉秀在綠林軍的協助下，以武力擊敗 了篡位的王莽，奪得帝位。劉秀身為西漢皇族， 故仍定國號為漢，但建都洛陽，年號建武，是為 漢光武帝。 •With help from Greenwood Army, Liu Xiu defeated Wang Mang and became emperor. Liu Xiu was royal family of Han, so he still named the dynasty Han, but with capital in Luo Yang, known as Eastern Han Dynasty. 劉秀 全面改革 Policy Reform •光武帝下令全面改革王莽所實施的舊政策， 整頓吏治，清查土地，使人民生活逐步穩 定。 •Emperor Guang Wu ordered a reform of the old policy implemented by Wang Mang, including restructuring of officer system, recording land inventory, so that people’s living became gradually stable. 光武中興 Guang Wu Revival •經過光武帝、明帝（58—76年在位）、章帝 （76—89年在位）三代的治理，東漢王朝已經逐 漸恢復了往日漢朝的強盛，這一時期被後人稱之 為“光武中興”。 •After Emperor Guang Wu, Ming (58-76AD), and Zhang (76-89AD), three generations of governance, the Eastern Han Dynasty gradually restored the prosperity of the former Han Dynasty. This period was later known as “Guang Wu Revival”. 東漢疆域 南方的開發 Development of the South •東漢以前，中國經濟的先進區域主要在黃河中下 游地區。東漢以後南方不少地區，如太湖和錢塘 江流域，鄱陽湖、洞庭湖周圍地區及成都平原一 帶開發速度加快。 • Before Eastern Han Dynasty, economy advanced region was in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. After the Eastern Han Dynasty, development accelerated in many areas of the South such as Taihu Lake, Qiantang River, Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake, and the Chengdu Plain. 匈奴 The Huns •公元46年匈奴分裂為南北兩部，劉秀接受了南匈 奴的歸附。 •公元73年東漢大舉反擊，竇固等追擊北匈奴至蒲 類海（新疆巴里坤湖) 。 •46AD, the Huns split into north and south. Liu Xiu accepted allegiance of the South Hun. •73AD Eastern Han Dynasty held large-scale counterattack, Dou Ku pursued North Huns to the Hun Po Lay Sea (Xinjiang Barkol Lake). 匈奴 The Huns •東漢章帝時，北匈奴日益衰弱。公元89年，耿秉 等大舉北進，北匈奴不斷失敗，向西遷移。以後， 北匈奴的一部分越過中亞、西亞遷往歐洲 。 •During Emperor Zhang, North Huns become increasingly weak. 89AD, Geng Bing led troops moved northward, the North Hun continually lost and migrated westward. Part of the Huns crossed Central Asia, West Asia, and moved to Europe. 鮮卑 Xianbei • 北匈奴西遷，鮮卑族乘機佔領了匈奴故地，勢力 迅速強盛起來。從此以後，鮮卑族擺脫了對東漢 王朝的依附，成為東漢中後期在北方的一個威脅。 •North Huns moved westward, Xianbei took the opportunity to occupy the land of Huns, their forces rapidly became stronger. Since then, Xianbei got rid of the dependence on the Eastern Han Dynasty, and became a threat to the late Eastern Han Dynasty. 朝鮮 Korea •在東漢末年，朝鮮半島北部先後興起高句 麗、百濟、新羅三個國家但都處在原始社 會階段 。 •Late Eastern Han Dynasty, on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, three countries Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla raised, but in the stage of primitive society. 日本 Japan •在西漢時，倭人就通過朝鮮半島與漢朝有了交往。 東漢時關係更為密切，公元57年，倭奴國派遣來 使臣，劉秀以“漢委奴國王”印相贈。 •In the Western Han Dynasty, Japan had interacted with Han Dynasty through the Korean Peninsula. Interaction became closer in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 57AD, Japan sent the envoys, and received a stamp of “Woren King of Han”. 班超出使西域 Ban Chao in West Territory •班超出使西域共達三十一年，不僅善於用武力鎮 撫各國，更善於用外交手段去聯絡較遠的國家。 在班超的努力下，西域五十餘國都歸附於漢，塔 里木盆地的統治權又歸到了漢朝，再現了一百年 前漢宣帝的輝煌。 • Ban Chao was ambassador in West Territory for 31 years. He not only repressed countries by using force, also contacted distant countries using diplomatic means. With Ban Chao's efforts, more than 50 countries allied with Han, the sovereignty of the Tarim Basin, have returned to the Han dynasty, recovering the glory of a hundred years ago. 班超出使西域 外戚與宦官 Empress’s family and Eunuchs • 和帝以後的皇帝多是小兒，太后臨朝聽政，往往形成龐大 的外戚權力集團，左右朝政。 • 小皇帝年長之後，畏忌外戚的權勢，就以身邊的宦官為心 腹，伺機除掉外戚集團，宦官又掌大權。 • After Ho Di, the emperors were all throne in youth, the Empress and her family controlled the government. • After the little emperor grew older, he dread power of the empress’s family, usually leaned on to the eunuchs by the side, got rid of the empress’s family, and the eunuchs became powerful. 黨錮之禍 Disaster of Party Restrain •宦官專權以後，排斥一般官僚士大夫，重用宦官 的子弟、親屬。 •官僚士大夫結合，形成反宦官的力量。批評宦官 專權。 •桓帝靈帝時，二次逮捕了官僚士大夫二百餘人， 禁錮終身，稱為“黨錮之禍”。 • Eunuchs excluded literati and used their children and relatives. The bureaucratic literati combined and formed an anti-eunuch force, criticizing the eunuchs. During Huan Di and Ling Di, twice bureaucratic literati of two hundred people were arrested and imprison for life, known as the “Disaster of Party Restrain”. 問答Q&A •誰建立東漢王朝? •1. 秦始皇 2. 劉秀 3. 劉秀 4.王莽 •Who established the Eastern Han Dynasty? 問答Q&A • 東漢時誰出使西域三十一年，使西域五十 餘國都歸附於漢? •1. 衛青 2. 霍去病 3. 張騫 4. 班超 • Who was envoy to the West Territory and had 50 countries allied with Han?