The Material cost of war for the early modern state Spain

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FC.88A THE START OF THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-30)
Eur. BOP centers largely around events in Germany
German stability largely depends on 7 Imperial electors
With 3 Catholic & 3 Protestant electors, swing vote belongs to Bohemian king,
Ferdinand of Styria, who is also Hapsburg heir apparent & an ardent Catholic,
Protestant Bohemians replace Ferdinand with Protestant
Frederick of Palatinate European wide war:
Spain, Pope, & Bavaria send
Austria men & money
Poland, stirs up Cossack raids to divert
Transylvanian aid to Bohemia
Only moral support for Boh.
from fellow Protestants
Rebels are easily crushed (1618-31) Prot. lands are
confiscated while Jesuits reconvert Bohemia to
Catholicism
Denmark, fearing growing Hapsburg
power, invades Germany to help
Protestants in 1625
Spain defeats Anglo-Dutch raid on
Cadiz & Fr. tries to block passes on
Spanish Rd. b/w Italy & Flanders
Bavarian & Imperial forces under
Wallenstein easily crush
Denmark’s forces by 1629
Despite repeated victories Spain
is worn out by 10 yrs. of war
while Dutch econ. gets stronger
Austria issues Edict of Restitution
(1630) seizing all Protestant lands
taken from Catholic Church since
1552
Dutch able to capture Spanish
treasure fleet (1629), robbing Spain
of money critical to its military
effort
Growing fear of Hapsburgs
Sp. must default on its loans
Sweden, free after its war vs. Poland, enters war on
Protestant side (1630), backed up by French funds,
making this a European wide conflict (FC.88B)
FC.88B THE THIRTY YEARS WAR: THE WAR OF ATTRITION (1630-48)
Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus, enters war in 1630 on Ger. Prot. side (FC.88A)
Swedes win two victories, but Gustavus Adolphus is killed
Swedish Phase
(1635-48)
War w/Russia Poland can’t help Aus.
Swedes devastate German Cath. lands
Sp. army enters war & crushes Swedes at Nordlingen (1634)
France enters war to prevent Hapsburg victory (1635)
French fund Ger. Prot’s & Swedes who
beat Imperialists at Wittstock (1636)
French Phase
(1635-48)
Fr. fund Dutch who destr. 2 Sp. fleets at
Downs (1639) & off Brazil coast (1640)
French drive Spanish from
France & invade Catalonia
Portugal rebels vs Spain
w/Dutch & French help
Exhausting
stalemate Neither
side can win or
afford to quit
War spreads More
states involved &
committing more
resources
Everyone exhausted  Peace talks begin at Westphalia & Munster (1645) but drag on because:
France & Sweden insist on
tough demands
Using Germany as a battleground to wear Austria, desperate to save what
down Austria suits France & Sweden
it can, refuses to admit defeat
Everyone worn out  Treaties of
Westphalia & Munster (1648)
Aust’s power in Ger.
broken  Expands
to East (FC.90)
Dutch win indep. Econ
dominance in 1600s (FC.93)
Ger. stays divided &
weak until unif. in
1871 (FC.121)
Spain is bankrupt & exhausted
 No longer a major power
Stage set for dominance by
Louis XIV’s France (FC.95)
Introduction:
A Brutal Century
“…the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
--Thomas Hobbes
The 1600s were brutal times, the years 1618-48 marked by the first European-wide conflict, the
Thirty Years War, the second half of the century dominated by the massive struggle & bloodshed of
Louis XIV’s wars.
The 1600s were brutal times, the years 1618-48 marked by the first European-wide conflict, the
Thirty Years War, the second half of the century dominated by the massive struggle & bloodshed of
Louis XIV’s wars.
The climate also turned colder. Even the lagoons of Venice froze over as did the Baltic Sea,
providing a convenient invasion route for the Swedes into Russia.
The 1600s were brutal times, the years 1618-48 marked by the first European-wide conflict, the
Thirty Years War, the second half of the century dominated by the massive struggle & bloodshed of
Louis XIV’s wars.
The climate also turned colder. Even the lagoons of Venice froze over ad did the Baltic Sea,
providing a convenient invasion route for the Swedes into Russia.
With colder weather came famine, and with that came epidemic. The Black Death made its last
major appearance in the 1600s, claiming 100,000 lives in London (1665), 130,000 in Naples (1656),
30% of Stockholm’s population (1710-11), and 50% of Marseilles’ (1720-21) before virtually
disappearing from the scene.
The 1600s were brutal times, the years 1618-48 marked by the first European-wide conflict, the
Thirty Years War, the second half of the century dominated by the massive struggle & bloodshed of
Louis XIV’s wars.
The climate also turned colder. Even the lagoons of Venice froze over ad did the Baltic Sea,
providing a convenient invasion route for the Swedes into Russia.
With colder weather came famine, and with that came epidemic. The Black Death made its last
major appearance in the 1600s, claiming 100,000 lives in London (1665), 130,000 in Naples (1656),
30% of Stockholm’s population (1710-11), and 50% of Marseilles’ (1720-21) before virtually
disappearing from the scene.
There were other diseases to take its place, though. Poor sanitation nourished lice carrying typhus,
rats and fleas carrying plague, and mosquitoes carrying malaria. Piles of horse manure in the
streets bred flies, leading to typhoid & infantile diarrhea that killed thousands of children.
Smallpox was especially prevalent, claiming an estimated 1 in 14 lives & leaving its survivors, such
as Louis XIV & Charles XII of Sweden, pockmarked for life.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
Up to one-half of all infants did not.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
Up to one-half of all infants did not.
Peter the Great & his second wife Catherine had 12 children. Only 2 daughters reached adulthood.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
Up to one-half of all infants did not.
Peter the Great & his second wife Catherine had 12 children. Only 2 daughters reached adulthood.
Queen Anne of England had 16 children, all dead by age l0.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
Up to one-half of all infants did not.
Peter the Great & his second wife Catherine had 12 children. Only 2 daughters reached adulthood.
Queen Anne of England had 16 children, all dead by age l0.
Louis XIV & his queen Maria Theresa had five children.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
Up to one-half of all infants did not.
Peter the Great & his second wife Catherine had 12 children. Only 2 daughters reached adulthood.
Queen Anne of England had 16 children, all dead by age l0.
Louis XIV & his queen Maria Theresa had five children. One survived.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
Up to one-half of all infants did not.
Peter the Great & his second wife Catherine had 12 children. Only 2 daughters reached adulthood.
Queen Anne of England had 16 children, all dead by age l0.
Louis XIV & his queen Maria Theresa had five children. One survived.
Within 14 months Louis lost his only son, eldest grandson, & eldest great-grandson-- all to measles.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
Up to one-half of all infants did not.
Peter the Great & his second wife Catherine had 12 children. Only 2 daughters reached adulthood.
Queen Anne of Eng had 16 children, all dead by age l0.
Louis XIV & his queen Maria Theresa had five children. One survived.
Within 14 months Louis lost his only son, eldest grandson, & eldest great-grandson-- all to measles.
For most people the day ended when the sun went down & their world was shrouded in a darkness
populated by witches and demons.
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
Up to one-half of all infants did not.
Peter the Great & his second wife Catherine had 12 children. Only 2 daughters reached adulthood.
Queen Anne of Eng had 16 children, all dead by age l0.
Louis XIV & his queen Maria Theresa had five children. One survived.
Within 14 months Louis lost his only son, eldest grandson, & eldest great-grandson-- all to measles.
For most people the day ended when the sun went down & their world was shrouded in a darkness
populated by witches and demons.
The great events of the day were beyond the narrow horizon of the vast majority of people
From 1648-1713 it is estimated that Europe’s pop. fell from 118 million to 102 million.
For most people life was a desperate struggle for survival.
In the words of the 17th century philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, it was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
and short.”
The rich & famous might look forward to a life of 50 yrs or so if they survived the first year of life.
Up to one-half of all infants did not.
Peter the Great & his second wife Catherine had 12 children. Only 2 daughters reached adulthood.
Queen Anne of Eng had 16 children, all dead by age l0.
Louis XIV & his queen Maria Theresa had five children. One survived.
Within 14 months Louis lost his only son, eldest grandson, & eldest great-grandson-- all to measles.
For most people the day ended when the sun went down & their world was shrouded in a darkness
populated by witches and demons.
The great events of the day were beyond the narrow horizon of the vast majority of people…
….unless those events came with a sword.
Even the heavens seemed to portend calamity, as the appearance of Halley’s Comet in 1618 added
to already growing anxiety about coming disaster.
A growing fear of war triggered a virtual arms race, as each ruler seemed armed to the teeth to
protect his realm from his neighbors. Demonstrations of military power, such as the one at
Nuremburg pictured below, were meant to deter aggression. Unfortunately they only alarmed their
neighbors and fed a vicious cycle of an arms race that saw military stockpiles and tensions rising
together.
In the early 1600s people expected
war to come in 1621 when the truce
between Spain and the Dutch
(United Provinces) expired. Indeed
it would have if not for events in
Bohemia in 1618.
The Storm breaks:
Bohemia (1618-23)
At this time, the balance of power between Catholics and Protestants in Europe centered largely
around events in Germany, which was split fairly evenly between the two faiths.
Similarly, Germany’s balance of power (political and religious) rested largely with seven electors
who would choose the Holy Roman Emperor, when the old and childless emperor, Matthias, died.
Since three electors were Protestant princes and three others were Catholic archbishops, the key to
that balance rested with the king of Bohemia, a staunchly Protestant land whose elective king,
Ferdinand of Styria, was also the heir apparent to the Austrian Hapsburg lands.
Two things added further to the rising tensions and uncertainty. One was the emperor Matthias’
Letter of Majesty in 1609 which granted the Bohemians religious freedom. Secondly, Ferdinand of
Styria, a fervent Catholic revoked the Bohemians’ religious freedom
Kingdom of
Bohemia
Ferdinand of Styria, the
heir apparent to the
childless and aging
emperor, Matthias.
At this time, the balance of power between Catholics and Protestants in Europe centered largely
around events in Germany, which was split fairly evenly between the two faiths.
Similarly, Germany’s balance of power (political and religious) rested largely with seven electors
who would choose the Holy Roman Emperor, when the old and childless emperor, Matthias, died.
Since three electors were Protestant princes and three others were Catholic archbishops, the key to
that balance rested with the king of Bohemia, a staunchly Protestant land whose elective king,
Ferdinand of Styria, was also the heir apparent to the Austrian Hapsburg lands.
Two things added further to the rising tensions and uncertainty. One was the emperor Matthias’
Letter of Majesty in 1609 which granted the Bohemians religious freedom. Secondly, Ferdinand of
Styria, a fervent Catholic revoked the Bohemians’ religious freedom
Kingdom of
Bohemia
Ferdinand of Styria, the
heir apparent to the
childless and aging
emperor, Matthias.
At this time, the balance of power between Catholics and Protestants in Europe centered largely
around events in Germany, which was split fairly evenly between the two faiths.
Similarly, Germany’s balance of power (political and religious) rested largely with seven electors
who would choose the Holy Roman Emperor, when the old and childless emperor, Matthias, died.
Since three electors were Protestant princes and three others were Catholic archbishops, the key to
that balance rested with the king of Bohemia, a staunchly Protestant land whose elective king,
Ferdinand of Styria, was also the heir apparent to the Austrian Hapsburg lands.
Two things added further to the rising tensions and uncertainty. One was the emperor Matthias’
Letter of Majesty in 1609 which granted the Bohemians religious freedom. Secondly, Ferdinand of
Styria, a fervent Catholic revoked the Bohemians’ religious freedom
Kingdom of
Bohemia
Ferdinand of Styria, the
heir apparent to the
childless and aging
emperor, Matthias.
At this time, the balance of power between Catholics and Protestants in Europe centered largely
around events in Germany, which was split fairly evenly between the two faiths.
Similarly, Germany’s balance of power (political and religious) rested largely with seven electors
who would choose the Holy Roman Emperor, when the old and childless emperor, Matthias, died.
Since three electors were Protestant princes and three others were Catholic archbishops, the key to
that balance rested with the king of Bohemia, a staunchly Protestant land whose elective king,
Ferdinand of Styria, was also the heir apparent to the Austrian Hapsburg lands.
Two things added further to the rising tensions and uncertainty. One was the emperor Matthias’
Letter of Majesty in 1609 which granted the Bohemians religious freedom. Secondly, Ferdinand of
Styria, a fervent Catholic revoked the Bohemians’ religious freedom
Kingdom of
Bohemia
Ferdinand of Styria, the
heir apparent to the
childless and aging
emperor, Matthias.
The Defenestration of Prague (1618)
Bohemians in Prague retaliated by defenestrating (tossing out a window) two Catholic ministers.
Miraculously they survived the 60 foot fall, Catholics claiming they were caught by angels,
Protestants saying they landed in a dung heap under the window. Ferdinand rewarded the ministers
for their trouble by giving them each the noble title von Hohenfall (Great fall). Whatever broke their
fall, the Defenestration of Prague triggered the Bohemian Revolt which would escalate into the Thirty
Years War, the first European-wide conflict.
Prague
Having deposed Ferdinand of Styria, the
Bohemians elected Frederick, the Protestant
elector of the Palatinate as their new king.
Unfortunately, Frederick failed to supply the type
of leadership the Bohemians needed for their
revolt to succeed. His father-in-law, James I of
England, was too remote and too preoccupied
with other matters to worry about Germany.
Ferdinand, had few troops of his own and had to rely on Maximillian of Bavaria, the leader of the Catholic League
in Germany and its army, the largest in Germany at that time.
Ferdinand also got support from his Spanish cousins, the Pope, and Poland. By contrast, the
Bohemians got virtually no support. A Jesuit play of the time made fun of this by having a
messenger tell Frederick that he would get help in the form of 100,000 herring from Denmark,
100,000 cheeses from the Dutch, and 100,000 ambassadors from the English. At the Battle of
White Mountain the imperial forces effectively crushed the Bohemian Revolt. Frederick of the
Palatinate’s electoral vote was given to the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria, while the Jesuits
were unleashed on Bohemia to bring it back into the folds of the Catholic Church.
The Danish Phase
(1625-9)
Suppression of the Bohemian Revolt was not the end of hostilities. Growing Hapsburg power now
alarmed Protestants outside of Germany. Enter Christian IV of Denmark, who had a well organized
nation-state & thought he could challenge growing Hapsburg power in Germany.
Suppression of the Bohemian Revolt was not the end of hostilities. Growing Hapsburg power now
alarmed Protestants outside of Germany. Enter Christian IV of Denmark, who had a well organized
nation-state & thought he could challenge growing Hapsburg power in Germany.
Christian thought he would be welcomed as a champion of German liberties. However, he was
sorely disappointed at the lukewarm reception he got from German Protestants who were nearly as
suspicious of Danish intentions as they were of the Hapsburgs.
The Danish attack brought to prominence Albrecht von Wallenstein, a devious, opportunistic, and
highly superstitious general who led the Hapsburg armies. Originally a Calvinist, he converted to
Catholicism in time to cash in on the rush for lands confiscated after the Bohemian revolt. The
huge estates he got enabled him to supply large forces, a key to any general’s success during the
30 years War when the state rarely could do so consistently.
The Danish attack brought to prominence Albrecht von Wallenstein, a devious, opportunistic, and
highly superstitious general who led the Hapsburg armies. Originally a Calvinist, he converted to
Catholicism in time to cash in on the rush for lands confiscated after the Bohemian revolt. The
huge estates he got enabled him to supply large forces, a key to any general’s success during the
30 years War when the state rarely could do so consistently.
Wallenstein, in conjunction with the Catholic League general, Tilly, made short work of the Danish
army. Having trapped Christian’s forces in the town of Straslund, Wallenstein then let the Danish
king off with fairly easy terms when it looked like Sweden was about to join in the war.
Meanwhile, the 12-year truce between Spain and the Dutch had expired and war resumed. A joint
raid launched by the Dutch and English against the Spanish port of Cadiz turned into a fiasco. After
this, England was no longer involved in the Thirty Years War, being preoccupied with its own civil
wars and revolution.
However, in 1628, the Dutch dealt a crippling blow to Spain by capturing its entire treasure fleet.
Spain also was involved in minor conflicts with France over Alpine mountain passes that were
crucial for supplying and communicating with its army in the Spanish Netherlands. Therefore,
despite Hapsburg victories in Germany, Spain was starting to feel the pinch.
However, in 1628, the Dutch dealt a crippling blow to Spain by capturing its entire treasure fleet.
Spain also was involved in minor conflicts with France over Alpine mountain passes that were
crucial for supplying and communicating with its army in the Spanish Netherlands. Therefore,
despite Hapsburg victories in Germany, Spain was starting to feel the pinch.
However, the fighting had hardly started.
In 1630, the emperor Ferdinand II, feeling confident after two easy victories, issued the Edict of
Restitution (1630) which restored all Catholic lands lost to the Protestants since the Peace of
Augsburg in 1555. The Church thus relaimed the lands of 2 archbishops, 12 bishops, & 500
monasteries, thus turning thousands of German Protestants into refugees. In addition, Ferdinand
didn’t consult the German Diet, thus angering Catholic, as well as Protestant nobles.
In 1630, the emperor Ferdinand II, feeling confident after two easy victories, issued the Edict of
Restitution (1630) which restored all Catholic lands lost to the Protestants since the Peace of
Augsburg in 1555. The Church thus relaimed the lands of 2 archbishops, 12 bishops, & 500
monasteries, thus turning thousands of German Protestants into refugees. In addition, Ferdinand
didn’t consult the German Diet, thus angering Catholic, as well as Protestant nobles.
At this point a new champion came forth for the Protestants…. whether they wanted him or not.
The Lion of the North:
Sweden (1630-35)
Into the fray stepped the fiery and charismatic king
of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus (1611-32),
probably the most celebrated figure of the Thirty
Years War. Having come to the throne in 1611 at
age 17, he already had twenty years of military
experience fighting the Poles when he brought the
Swedish army into Germany.
Into the fray stepped the fiery and charismatic king
of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus (1611-32),
probably the most celebrated figure of the Thirty
Years War. Having come to the throne in 1611 at
age 17, he already had twenty years of military
experience fighting the Poles when he brought the
Swedish army into Germany.
Although a strict disciplinarian, several things
endeared Gustavus to his soldiers. For one thing,
he looked after their creature comforts, getting
them the best food, blankets, and clothes he could
as well as waterproof Russian boots. He shared
their hardships, even digging trenches with them.
Into the fray stepped the fiery and charismatic king
of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus (1611-32),
probably the most celebrated figure of the Thirty
Years War. Having come to the throne in 1611 at
age 17, he already had twenty years of military
experience fighting the Poles when he brought the
Swedish army into Germany.
Although a strict disciplinarian, several things
endeared Gustavus to his soldiers. For one thing,
he looked after their creature comforts, getting
them the best food, blankets, and clothes he could
as well as waterproof Russian boots. He shared
their hardships, even digging trenches with them.
He was also a great general, and soldiers always
love to follow a winner, especially one that
personally leads them in battle. Once when urged
to stay out of danger, he replied he wouldn’t be a
“king in a box”. This was a trait that both endeared
him to his men and eventually cost him his life.
Into the fray stepped the fiery and charismatic king
of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus (1611-32),
probably the most celebrated figure of the Thirty
Years War. Having come to the throne in 1611 at
age 17, he already had twenty years of military
experience fighting the Poles when he brought the
Swedish army into Germany.
Although a strict disciplinarian, several things
endeared Gustavus to his soldiers. For one thing,
he looked after their creature comforts, getting
them the best food, blankets, and clothes he could
as well as waterproof Russian boots. He shared
their hardships, even digging trenches with them.
He was also a great general, and soldiers always
love to follow a winner, especially one that
personally leads them in battle. Once when urged
to stay out of danger, he replied he wouldn’t be a
“king in a box”. This was a trait that both endeared
him to his men and eventually cost him his life.
Gustavus was so respected that an Italian
mercenary hired to kill him couldn’t pull the trigger
when he had him in his sights. Even the emperor,
Ferdinand II, was said to have cried upon hearing
of Gustavus’ death in battle.
The Swedish army was somewhat unique as well, being a truly national army consisting of draftees
rather than mercenaries,. Training and discipline were especially strict, although the Swedes would
gain a reputation for being especially ferocious when turned loose on the civilian population.
Names & pictures of cities captured by
Gustavus Adolphus. This was basically
propaganda to terrorize the local
populations. The Swedes were so
notorious for their brutality that German
mothers would scare their children into
behaving with the threat that the
Swedes would come in the night & get
them.
Much of Gustavus’ success was due to his
prime minister, Axel Oxenstierna (15831654), a cool calculating diplomat who
served as the perfect complement to the
fiery Gustavus. It was Oxenstierna who
laid the diplomatic groundwork, such as
the alliance with and monetary support
from France, that allowed Gustavus to
concentrate on the battlefield.
Gustavus: "If we were all as cold as you,
we should freeze."
Oxenstierna: "If we were all as hot as your
majesty we should burn.”
At this time it was common for rulers to
leave much of the responsibility of
governing to a prime minister.
Louis XIII of France relied heavily on Cardinal
Richelieu….
…. while Oxenstierna’s counterpart in Spain was
the Count-Duke of Olivares, as portrayed by the
great Spanish painter, Velasquez.
The diplomatic situation at this time was especially
complex, because Bavaria and the Catholic League
were allied with both France and Austria. But France
was funding Sweden, while the Bavarian general, Tilly
was leading both the Bavarian and Hapsburg armies
against Sweden.
Bavaria
France
Austria
Sweden
In 1631, the emperor, Ferdinand II, dismissed Wallenstein for his constant intrigues with
the enemy. This gave command of the Hapsburg, as well as the Catholic League forces
to the Bavarian general, Tilly, known as the Monk in armor for his religious piety.
However, Wallenstein’s value as a general had been his ability to supply his army from
his extensive lands in Bohemia. Now that he was gone, those resources were no longer
available, so Tilly had to find another source of food for his hungry army. Believing the
town of Magdeburg had food, he put it under siege. Magdeburg tried to hold out until
Gustavus Adolphus came to the rescue, but two breaches in the city wall let in the
hungry imperialist troops.
What ensued was one of the worst disasters of the Thirty Years War. It was a windy
day and a fire broke out in the confusion of sacking the town. Unfortunately, the imperial
troops were too drunk and out of control to fight the fire which rapidly spread and
destroyed the city. Of 30,000 inhabitants, only 5,000 survived, and most of those women
taken captive by the soldiers. Tilly himself, who was seen carrying a baby he rescued
from the flames, sent priests to get his men to marry their captives.
Word of the catastrophe at Magdeburg incensed Protestants, who, whenever asked for
quarter by Imperial troops, would kill them with the cry “Magdeburg quarter.” The war
had taken a nasty turn for the worse
Word of the catastrophe at Magdeburg incensed Protestants, who, when asked for
quarter by Imperial troops, would kill them with the cry “Magdeburg quarter.” The war
had taken a nasty turn for the worse …and everyone would pay the price.
The Swedish and Imperialist armies finally clashed at Breitenfeld (9/18/1631). The
Swedes introduced several innovations. For one thing, they were organized in smaller
squares that made them more mobile than the huge Spanish tercios. Swedish
musketeers were also more thoroughly trained in the countermarch. Even their
imperialist foes said the Swedes’ rate of fire was three times greater than their own.
Finally, the Swedish artillery was lighter and
more mobile, allowing them to place their
cannons in front of the army for the initial
bombardment preceding the battle, and
then pull it back as the two armies closed in
on one another.
Finally, the Swedish artillery was lighter and
more mobile, allowing them to place their
cannons in front of the army for the initial
bombardment preceding the battle, and
then pull it back as the two armies closed in
on one another.
X-rays of Swedish cannons
Consisted of several layers of different materials,
including leather, which made them strong, but light.
Early in the battle, the Swedes’ Saxon allies were panicked by the wild charge of the imperialists’
Croatian cavalry, with their red cloaks & demonic sounding battle cries, thus leaving the Swedes’
left flank exposed.
This is where the Swedes’ training really told as they adjusted to fill the gap and maintained a
relentless rate of fire to hammer the enemy attacks to a standstill. Gustavus seemed to be
everywhere, rallying his army until the opportune moment for a counter-attack. Finally, late in the
day, with the sun and dust in the Imperialists’ faces, he led a cavalry charge that broke the enemy.
By nightfall, the Imperialists had suffered 12,000 casualties and lost another 7,000 prisoners,
many of whom had enlisted in the Swedish army by the following morning.
The Catholic general, Tilly, wounded in his neck and chest and his right arm shattered, was
carried senseless from the field, but died soon afterwards.
This was the Protestants’ first major victory in the war, and everything seemed to cave in on the
Imperialists who, for the first time, saw the war taken to their lands. Ferdinand reinstated
Wallenstein as his general who met Gustavus at the battle of Lutzen in 1632. To make his army
look bigger, Wallenstein pressed the local peasants into squares, and then burned their homes so
the smoke would blow into the Swedes’ faces.
As always, Gustavus was in the thick of it. At one point, he led a charge and disappeared into the
smoke, but only his horse returned. Enraged at their leader’s death, the Swedes rallied to give
him one more victory, even in death. However, it was a hollow victory that drained the strength
from the Swedish war effort.
Wallenstein didn’t survive Gustavus
Adolphus by long. His continual intrigues
finally convinced Ferdinand to have him
killed. One night, a group of mercenaries
broke into Wallenstein’s headquarters, cut
him down, and rolled his body up into a
rug. Of the nine soldiers who finished
Wallenstein off, three were Scottish and
four were Irish, showing the strong
involvement of mercenaries from the
British Isles, even if England itself was
preoccupied with other affairs.
Spanish reinforcements arrived to bolster the Imperialists’ cause. At Nordlingen in 1634, the
outnumbered Swedes launched no fewer than 15 desperate but suicidal attacks. By the day’s end,
their army of 25,000 men had lost 17,000 men. Once again help arrived just as the Protestant
cause seemed hopeless.
The War of attrition:
France (1635-48)
France’s entry into the war was a gradual process, largely because it was still trying to recover from
its own Religious Wars. It had been funding Sweden’s war effort since 1631, and Louis XIII’s
minister, Cardinal Richelieu, pushed for a more aggressive policy to stop the Hapsburgs.
France’s entry into the war was a gradual process, largely because it was still trying to recover from
its own Religious Wars. It had been funding Sweden’s war effort since 1631, and Louis XIII’s
minister, Cardinal Richelieu, pushed for a more aggressive policy to stop the Hapsburgs.
It largely came down to a power struggle between Richelieu & the king’s mother, Marie de Medici,
who wanted France to stay out of war. Marie expected her son to side with her, but on the “Day of
the Dupes”, she lost out to Richelieu and was sent to a sort of internal exile on a country estate.
France’s entry into the war was a gradual process, largely because it was still trying to recover from
its own Religious Wars. It had been funding Sweden’s war effort since 1631, and Louis XIII’s
minister, Cardinal Richelieu, pushed for a more aggressive policy to stop the Hapsburgs.
It largely came down to a power struggle between Richelieu & the king’s mother, Marie de Medici,
who wanted France to stay out of war. Marie expected her son to side with her, but on the “Day of
the Dupes”, she lost out to Richelieu and was sent to a sort of internal exile on a country estate.
France had chosen war.
Even after entering the war, France eased into its role by funding the Swedes and the Dutch
against the Hapsburgs.
The Dutch certainly did their part.
The Dutch certainly did their part.
In 1639, they destroyed 70 out of 77 Spanish ships at the Battle of the Downs.
The Dutch certainly did their part.
In 1639, they destroyed 70 out of 77 Spanish ships at the Battle of the Downs.
The next year (1640) they destroyed another Spanish squadron off the coast of Brazil.
The Dutch certainly did their part.
In 1639, they destroyed 70 out of 77 Spanish ships at the Battle of the Downs.
The next year (1640) they destroyed another Spanish squadron off the coast of Brazil.
These defeats triggered revolts in Portugal & Catalonia in 1640 further wearing down the Spanish.
The Dutch certainly did their part.
In 1639, they destroyed 70 out of 77 Spanish ships at the Battle of the Downs.
The next year (1640) they destroyed another Spanish squadron off the coast of Brazil.
These defeats triggered revolts in Portugal & Catalonia in 1640 further wearing down the Spanish.
All these disasters, piled on top of one another, along with depopulation from famine and plague in
the early 1600s, left Spain exhausted
The Dutch certainly did their part.
In 1639, they destroyed 70 out of 77 Spanish ships at the Battle of the Downs.
The next year (1640) they destroyed another Spanish squadron off the coast of Brazil.
These defeats triggered revolts in Portugal & Catalonia in 1640 further wearing down the Spanish.
All these disasters, piled on top of one another, along with depopulation from famine and plague in
the early 1600s, left Spain exhausted…but not ready to give up.
The Dutch certainly did their part.
In 1639, they destroyed 70 out of 77 Spanish ships at the Battle of the Downs.
The next year (1640) they destroyed another Spanish squadron off the coast of Brazil.
These defeats triggered revolts in Portugal & Catalonia in 1640 further wearing down the Spanish.
All these disasters piled on top of one another, along with depopulation from famine and plague in
the early 1600s, left Spain exhausted…but not ready to give up.
Events in Germany were going no better.
At Wittstock (1636) the Protestants won their first major victory since Breitenfeld, capturing 133
enemy cannons. Wittstock both forced the Spanish army to withdraw from France and revived
Sweden’s military reputation.
At Wittstock (1636) the Protestants won their first major victory since Breitenfeld, capturing 133
enemy cannons. Wittstock both forced the Spanish army to withdraw from France and revived
Sweden’s military reputation.
At the Second battle of Breitenfeld in 1642, the Swedes again triumphed, despite the imperialists’
use of chain shot (two cannonballs chained together and fired from one cannon).
At Wittstock (1636) the Protestants won their first major victory since Breitenfeld, capturing 133
enemy cannons. Wittstock both forced the Spanish army to withdraw from France and revived
Sweden’s military reputation.
At the Second battle of Breitenfeld in 1642, the Swedes again triumphed, despite the imperialists’
use of chain shot (two cannonballs chained together and fired from one cannon).
In 1643, the French crushed the Spanish at the battle of Rocroi, a battle that is generally seen as
signaling the end of Spanish greatness. At the time of the battle, the dying Louis XIII, supposedly
had a vision of France winning a great victory.
The Dogs of War
The Thirty Years War was a major disaster for Germany’s
population. However, it was no picnic for its soldiers,
regardless of what the recruiting posters said.
The Thirty Years War was a major disaster for Germany’s
population. However, it was no picnic for its soldiers,
regardless of what the recruiting posters said.
Early in the war recruiters used music, colorful banners, and
promises of glory and riches to attract naïve young men to
enlist. However, as the war dragged on and it became
increasingly harder to find willing recruits, recruiters replaced
banners and music with gallows next to their tables as a
subtle inducement to enlist.
A sutler’s tent where soldiers
could buy extra goods to
supplement the inadequate
and infrequent supplies they
received from the state.
An officer breaks up a dispute over a card game. Gambling, fighting and the resulting fights
were common problems in military camps.
Camp scene (notice the soldier on the right picking fleas off his body)
Not that battle wasn’t bad enough…
“The cruel shots, the crashing of armor plates, the splintering of pikestaffs…”
“…. the screams of the attackers as well as the wounded…”
“…the blare of trumpets, the roll of drums, the shrill sound of fifes…”
When over,..”the earth that is accustomed to covering the dead was herself now covered with
corpses.”
An army surgeon amputates a
wounded soldier’s leg to prevent
gangrene from setting in. To
cauterize wounds, some surgeons
would sprinkle gunpowder on the
wound and ignite it. The shock of the
explosion would sometimes kill the
soldier.
However, as always, the big killer of soldiers was not wounds from battle, but
disease. An army might lose 20-25% of its numbers a year and 5% a month if
it campaigned in the winter months.
One study of a Swedish village showed that of 230 recruits taken to war, only
15 eventually returned. In 1639, half the recruits were under the age of 15.
Only 2 were over 18.
“Young soldier, old beggar”
Despite promises of glory and riches to young recruits,
most veterans ended up impoverished and often
disabled.
Disabled veterans begging, largely from people they or
others like them had probably molested, brutalized, or
stolen from earlier. Disabled veterans often went to
monasteries where they intimidated and beat up the monks.
In France, the Church agreed to fund the building of a
hospital for disabled veterans if the king would run it & take
the veterans out of the monasteries. Thus was born the
Invalides, the first veterans hospital.
Casualties of War
Fighting in the Thirty Years War consisted more of skirmishes and raids than it did of a few major
pitched battles. Therefore many civilians had to deal head-on with war as a chronic problem
rather than something to avoid just a few days a year.
Because of its scale and cost, the Thirty Years War seemed to assume a life of its own
where neither side could either win a decisive victory or afford to quit. The abuses and
atrocities of this war were nothing new. What made it unique was its prolonged nature,
which multiplied its abuses many times over what had ever been seen before.
Jacques Callot’s The Miseries of War
A company of mercenaries foraging through the countryside
The ravages of plundering
mercenaries in the Thirty
Years War left hunger and
disease in their wake,
depopulating many areas of
Germany by as much as 60%.
The Palatinate may have lost
as much as 98% of its
population.
Pleas by the peasants for mercy were rarely
heeded. Many peasants, having lost their
homes, fled to the woods to subsist on
whatever they could find there.
When given the chance, peasants would take
vengeance on stragglers, no matter which side
they supposedly represented. Some peasants
even organized into armies to defend their
homes against both sides in the war.
Since plundering was technically against regulations, officers would occasionally crack down when
it got especially out of hand. A few unlucky soldiers would be caught and hanged, serving as a very
temporary warning to the others. Below right: One of the most notorious and feared military
punishments was the dreaded “Swedish drink”, a mixture of excrement forcibly poured down a
soldier’s throat.
Peace
Finally, in 1645, both sides, exhausted by war, sat down to peace talks. However, each party came
to the talks with the intention of gaining as much & compromising as little as possible.
Left to right:Ferdinand III of Austria, Philip IV of Spain (1622-43) & Gaspar de Guzman;, Count-Duke of Olivares
(1587-1645), chief minister for Philip IV, the young Louis XIV of France, and his main minister Cardinal Mazarin
Finally, in 1645, both sides, exhausted by war, sat down to peace talks. However, each party came
to the talks with the intention of gaining as much & compromising as little as possible.
France & Sweden each had the scent of blood in their nostrils, having gained the upper hand in the
war, & made stiff demands for land & money to pay for their troubles.
Left to right:Ferdinand III of Austria, Philip IV of Spain (1622-43) & Gaspar de Guzman;, Count-Duke of Olivares
(1587-1645), chief minister for Philip IV, the young Louis XIV of France, and his main minister Cardinal Mazarin
Finally, in 1645, both sides, exhausted by war, sat down to peace talks. However, each party came
to the talks with the intention of gaining as much & compromising as little as possible.
France & Sweden were like wolves with the scent of blood in their nostrils. Having gained the
upper hand in the war, they made stiff demands for land & money to pay for their troubles.
Austria & Spain were like rats trapped in a corner, desperate, dangerous, & unwilling to
compromise their long-standing imperial positions, even though the foundations for those imperial
positions were rapidly crumbling away.
Left to right:Ferdinand III of Austria, Philip IV of Spain (1622-43) & Gaspar de Guzman;, Count-Duke of Olivares
(1587-1645), chief minister for Philip IV, the young Louis XIV of France, and his main minister Cardinal Mazarin
Finally, in 1645, both sides, exhausted by war, sat down to peace talks. However, each party came
to the talks with the intention of gaining as much & compromising as little as possible.
France & Sweden each had the scent of blood in their nostrils, having gained the upper hand in the
war, & made stiff demands for land & money to pay for their troubles.
Austria & Spain were like rats trapped in a corner, desperate & still dangerous, & not willing to
compromise their long standing imperial positions, even though the foundations for those imperial
positions were rapidly crumbling away.
And in the middle was Germany, or, more properly, 300 Ger states: powerless to stop the armies
rampaging over their soil while providing a convenient neutral battleground on which other
countries’ armies could do their dirty work.
Left to right:Ferdinand III of Austria, Philip IV of Spain (1622-43) & Gaspar de Guzman;, Count-Duke of Olivares
(1587-1645), chief minister for Philip IV, the young Louis XIV of France, and his main minister Cardinal Mazarin
Finally, in 1645, both sides, exhausted by war, sat down to peace talks. However, each party came
to the talks with the intention of gaining as much & compromising as little as possible.
France & Sweden each had the scent of blood in their nostrils, having gained the upper hand in the
war, & made stiff demands for land & money to pay for their troubles.
Austria & Spain were like rats trapped in a corner, desperate & still dangerous, & not willing to
compromise their long standing imperial positions, even though the foundations for those imperial
positions were rapidly crumbling away.
And in the middle was Germany, or, more properly, 300 Ger states: powerless to stop the armies
rampaging over their soil while providing a convenient neutral battleground on which other countries
could do their dirty work.
So from 1645-48, the diplomats wrangled
Left to right:Ferdinand III of Austria, Philip IV of Spain (1622-43) & Gaspar de Guzman;, Count-Duke of Olivares
(1587-1645), chief minister for Philip IV, the young Louis XIV of France, and his main minister Cardinal Mazarin
Finally, in 1645, both sides, exhausted by war, sat down to peace talks. However, each party came
to the talks with the intention of gaining as much & compromising as little as possible.
France & Sweden each had the scent of blood in their nostrils, having gained the upper hand in the
war, & made stiff demands for land & money to pay for their troubles.
Austria & Spain were like rats trapped in a corner, desperate & still dangerous, & not willing to
compromise their long standing imperial positions, even though the foundations for those imperial
positions were rapidly crumbling away.
And in the middle was Germany, or, more properly, 300 Ger states: powerless to stop the armies
rampaging over their soil while providing a convenient neutral battleground on which other countries
could do their dirty work.
So from 1645-48, the diplomats wrangled, the armies kept fighting
Left to right:Ferdinand III of Austria, Philip IV of Spain (1622-43) & Gaspar de Guzman;, Count-Duke of Olivares
(1587-1645), chief minister for Philip IV, the young Louis XIV of France, and his main minister Cardinal Mazarin
Finally, in 1645, both sides, exhausted by war, sat down to peace talks. However, each party came
to the talks with the intention of gaining as much & compromising as little as possible.
France & Sweden each had the scent of blood in their nostrils, having gained the upper hand in the
war, & made stiff demands for land & money to pay for their troubles.
Austria & Spain were like rats trapped in a corner, desperate & still dangerous, & not willing to
compromise their long standing imperial positions, even though the foundations for those imperial
positions were rapidly crumbling away.
And in the middle was Germany, or, more properly, 300 Ger states: powerless to stop the armies
rampaging over their soil while providing a convenient neutral battleground on which other countries
could do their dirty work.
So from 1645-48, the diplomats wrangled, the armies kept fighting, & Germany bled.
Left to right:Ferdinand III of Austria, Philip IV of Spain (1622-43) & Gaspar de Guzman;, Count-Duke of Olivares
(1587-1645), chief minister for Philip IV, the young Louis XIV of France, and his main minister Cardinal Mazarin
Finally, in 1645, both sides, exhausted by war, sat down to peace talks. However, each party came
to the talks with the intention of gaining as much & compromising as little as possible.
France & Sweden each had the scent of blood in their nostrils, having gained the upper hand in the
war, & made stiff demands for land & money to pay for their troubles.
Austria & Spain were like rats trapped in a corner, desperate & still dangerous, & not willing to
compromise their long standing imperial positions, even though the foundations for those imperial
positions were rapidly crumbling away.
And in the middle was Germany, or, more properly, 300 Ger states: powerless to stop the armies
rampaging over their soil while providing a convenient neutral battleground on which other countries
could do their dirty work.
So from 1645-48, the diplomats wrangled, the armies kept fighting, & Germany bled.
But exhaustion was doing its job on even the big powers, especially Spain & Austria, but also
France which was seething with revolt.
Left to right:Ferdinand III of Austria, Philip IV of Spain (1622-43). Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares
(1587-1645), chief minister for Philip IV, the young Louis XIV of France, and his main minister Cardinal Richelieu
The Dutch and Spanish sign the Treaty of Munster in 1648, finally granting independence to the
Dutch Republic after 80 years of struggle. The Dutch coming to terms with Spain also prompted
parallel negotiations a few miles away at Westphalia to put a final end to the war in Germany.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
In the1590s, plague ravaged Spain’s population causing another downturn in revenues
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
In the1590s, plague ravaged Spain’s population causing another downturn in revenues
In 1607 the Spanish crown defaulted again, forcing them into a 12-year truce with the Dutch
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
In the1590s, plague ravaged Spain’s population causing another downturn in revenues
In 1607 the Spanish crown defaulted again, forcing them into a 12-year truce with the Dutch
In 1621 war renewed, leading again to lower revenues and higher expenses.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
In the1590s, plague ravaged Spain’s population causing another downturn in revenues
In 1607 the Spanish crown defaulted again, forcing them into a 12-year truce with the Dutch
In 1621 war renewed, leading again to lower revenues and higher expenses.
So once again in 1627, Spain defaulted on its loans
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
In the1590s, plague ravaged Spain’s population causing another downturn in revenues
In 1607 the Spanish crown defaulted again, forcing them into a 12-year truce with the Dutch
In 1621 war renewed, leading again to lower revenues down higher expenses.
So once again in 1627, Spain defaulted on its loans
The next year (1628) the Dutch captured Spain’s treasure fleet, dealing it another crippling blow.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
In the1590s, plague ravaged Spain’s population causing another downturn in revenues
In 1607 the Spanish crown defaulted again, forcing them into a 12-year truce with the Dutch
In 1621 war renewed, leading again to lower revenues down higher expenses.
So once again in 1627, Spain defaulted on its loans
The next year (1628) the Dutch captured Spain’s treasure fleet, dealing it another crippling blow.
By the late 1630’s, silver production was down for good.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
In the1590s, plague ravaged Spain’s population causing another downturn in revenues
In 1607 the Spanish crown defaulted again, forcing them into a 12-year truce with the Dutch
In 1621 war renewed, leading again to lower revenues down higher expenses.
So once again in 1627, Spain defaulted on its loans
The next year (1628) the Dutch captured Spain’s treasure fleet, dealing it another crippling blow.
By the late 1630’s, silver production was down for good. So was Spain as a major power.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
In the1590s, plague ravaged Spain’s population causing another downturn in revenues
In 1607 the Spanish crown defaulted again, forcing them into a 12-year truce with the Dutch
In 1621 war renewed, leading again to lower revenues down higher expenses.
So once again in 1627, Spain defaulted on its loans
The next year (1628) the Dutch captured Spain’s treasure fleet, dealing it another crippling blow.
By the late 1630’s, silver production was down for good. So was Spain as a major power.
65% of Spain’s normal revenue in 1643 was spent just on interest, causing it to debase its coinage
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
Spain
From 1540-1580, American silver production rose by a factor of ten times to 2 million ducats a year.
However, Armada in 1588 cost 10 million ducats, causing Philip II to default on his loans in 1596.
By 1598, the Spanish debt was 100 million ducats, equal to 50 years revenue.
That’s if the American mines maintained their productivity. They didn’t.
In the1590s, plague ravaged Spain’s population causing another downturn in revenues
In 1607 the Spanish crown defaulted again, forcing them into a 12-year truce with the Dutch
In 1621 war renewed, leading again to lower revenues down higher expenses.
So once again in 1627, Spain defaulted on its loans
The next year (1628) the Dutch captured Spain’s treasure fleet, dealing it another crippling blow.
By the late 1630’s, silver production was down for good. So was Spain as a major power.
65% of Spain’s normal revenue in 1643 was spent just on interest, causing it to debase its coinage
Overdue payments for Army of Flanders triggered 46 mutinies during this era.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
France
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
France
By 1596 the French crown had accumulated a debt of 100 million livre
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
France
By 1596 the French crown had accumulated a debt of 100 million livre
Its yearly revenue was 31 million of which 24 million was already taken by debts
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
France
By 1596 the French crown had accumulated a debt of 100 million livre
Its yearly revenue was 31 million of which 24 million was already taken by debts
Careful nurturing by Henry IV during a period of peace (1598-1610) led to a partial recovery
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
France
By 1596 the French crown had accumulated a debt of 100 million livre
Its yearly revenue was 31 million of which 24 million was already taken by debts
Careful nurturing by Henry IV during a period of peace (1598-1610) led to a partial recovery
From 1610 to the 1630’s, weak government led Richelieu to conclude that France was in no shape
to fight a major war until 1635, when it entered the war.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
France
By 1596 the French crown had accumulated a debt of 100 million livre
Its yearly revenue was 31 million of which 24 million was already taken by debts
Careful nurturing by Henry IV during a period of peace (1598-1610) led to a partial recovery
From 1610 to the 1630’s, weak government led Richelieu to conclude that France was in no shape
to fight a major war until 1635, when it entered the war.
In 1643, French expenditure was double the crown’s income, leading to the Fronde, a revolt that
nearly toppled the king.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
For England, war in 1540’s raised expenses to ten times Henry VIII’s normal income, forcing him to
sell Church lands, seize estates, force loans, and debase the coinage
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
For England, War in 1540’s raised expenses to ten times Henry VIII’s normal income, forcing him
to sell Church lands, seize estates, force loans, and debase the coinage
From 1558 to 1580, peace prevailed and the treasury recovered.
The Material cost of war for the early modern state
For England, War in 1540’s raised expenses to ten times Henry VIII’s normal income, forcing him
to sell Church lands, seize estates, force loans, and debase the coinage
From 1558 to 1580, peace prevailed and the treasury recovered.
However, when war with Spain broke out, expenses rose from £50,000 in 1580 to £500,000 (1600)
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
Estimated population losses
from the Thirty Years War
in different districts in
Germany
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & finally destroyed
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
- Berlin & Colmar lost 50% of their respective populations
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
- Berlin & Colmar lost 50% of their respective populations
- Chemnitz lost 80%
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
- Berlin & Colmar lost 50% of their respective populations
- Chemnitz lost 80%
- Palatinate lost 98%
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
- Berlin & Colmar lost 50% of their respective populations
- Chemnitz lost 80%
- Palatinate lost 98%
The Swedish army claimed to have destroyed 1500 cities and 18,000 villages
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
- Berlin & Colmar lost 50% of their respective populations
- Chemnitz lost 80%
- Palatinate lost 98%
The Swedish army claimed to have destroyed 1500 cities and 18,000 villages
By 1648, many German peasants were reduced to living like wild animals in the woods.
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
- Berlin & Colmar lost 50% of their respective populations
- Chemnitz lost 80%
- Palatinate lost 98%
The Swedish army claimed to have destroyed 1500 cities and 18,000 villages
By 1648, many German peasants were reduced to living like wild animals in the woods.
Therefore, when we study how Germany was used as a battleground for the Seven years War and
the wars of Louis XIV, the French Revolution, and Napoleon, remember the Thirty Years War.
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
- Berlin & Colmar lost 50% of their respective populations
- Chemnitz lost 80%
- Palatinate lost 98%
The Swedish army claimed to have destroyed 1500 cities and 18,000 villages
By 1648, many German peasants were reduced to living like wild animals in the woods.
Therefore, when we study how Germany was used as a battleground for the Seven years War and
the wars of Louis XIV, the French Revolution, and Napoleon, remember the Thirty Years War.
When we study the rise of Brandenburg-Prussia & the unification of the German State, we should
remember the 30 Years War.
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
- Berlin & Colmar lost 50% of their respective populations
- Chemnitz lost 80%
- Palatinate lost 98%
The Swedish army claimed to have destroyed 1500 cities and 18,000 villages
By 1648, many German peasants were reduced to living like wild animals in the woods.
Therefore, when we study how Germany was used as a battleground for the Seven years War and
the wars of Louis XIV, the French Revolution, and Napoleon, remember the Thirty Years War.
When we study the rise of Brandenburg-Prussia & the unification of the German State, we should
remember the 30 Years War.
When we study WWI & WWII & all their destruction & suffering with Germany at the center,
remember the 30 Years War.
The human cost of the Thirty Years War
But it was Germany that paid the heaviest price
Politically, its 300 states were sovereign, with the right to charge taxes, declare war, etc, which
was more of a curse than a blessing to Germany
Germany lost an estimated 30-40% of its population, going from 20million to 12million
- Marburg changed hands 11 times
- Magdeburg was besieged ten times & brutally destroyed
- Wurtemburg's population fell from 65,400 people to 14,800, with half its buildings gone.
- Bohemia's population of 3 million declined to 780,000. 5/6 of its villages were abandoned
- Berlin & Colmar lost 50% of their respective populations
- Chemnitz lost 80%
- Palatinate lost 98%
The Swedish army claimed to have destroyed 1500 cities and 18,000 villages
By 1648, many German peasants were reduced to living like wild animals in the woods.
Therefore, when we study how Germany was used as a battleground for the Seven years War and
the wars of Louis XIV, the French Revolution, and Napoleon, remember the Thirty Years War.
When we study the rise of Brandenburg-Prussia & the unification of the German State, we should
remember the 30 Years War.
When we study WWI & WWII & all their destruction & suffering with Germany at the center,
remember the 30 Years War.
And when we look at the Cold War, Germany's reunification, & painful transition back to nationhood,
remember the 30 Years War.
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