# Inferences and Drawing Conclusions

```Inferences and
Drawing Conclusions
Inference
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Inferences: clues that good readers use to arrive at a conclusion
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Prior Knowledge + Textual Evidence = Inference
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Drawing a conclusion about something that is not in the text
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The author of a book or an article may not tell you everything
that you need to know. You must be able to figure out what he
did not say. That means that you must learn how to make good
guesses about what the author means. That is called drawing
conclusions (Study Island)
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When you draw conclusions or make inferences you use the
information provided by the author along with what you know
to fill in gaps. What this usually means is that the author will
provide you with most of the information you need, but you
might have to make connections of your own to completely
understand the story. (Study Island)
Practice with Inferences
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The beautiful insect came out of its cocoon and flew away.
Inference: The insect is a butterfly.
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Once spring arrives, make sure seedlings go in the garden as early
as possible. You should cover them if the weather turns cold.
Inference: A good inference is that young plants will not grow well
if they get too cold. The inference makes sense.
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Toby is the fastest runner in the school. He even beat Jacob in a
race last year. He never walks. He always runs. This year all the
boys in third grade will have a race for Field Day.
Inference: A good inference is that the writer thinks that Toby will
win the race this year. Most of the information in the passage is
about how fast Toby can run.
Practice with Inferences
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Jerry sat stiffly on the bench. He hated not being able to help his
basketball team in their biggest game of the season. He looked
over where two silver crutches leaned against the bench, then
looked back out on the floor. "Why did this happen to me?" he
wondered.
What conclusion can you draw after reading the passage?
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Inference #1: Jerry is injured.
Clue 1: He is sitting on the bench, not playing in the game.
Clue 2: There are two crutches leaning against the bench.
Clue 3: His questions, "Why did this happen to me?"
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What can you infer about Jerry's injury?
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Inference: He injured a leg or a foot. The author mentions two
silver crutches, and you know that a crutch is used to help an
injured person walk. The author doesn't say what Jerry injured,
but if you combine what is said with what you know, you can
make an evidence-based guess that Jerry hurt his leg or foot.
Practice with Inferences
Snowfall is helping firefighters contain fires still
burning in California.
Freezing temperatures in mountain areas have
dampened down the flames that remain. Fires have
now been burning California for two weeks. So far,
22 people have died. 3,500 homes have been
destroyed.
The helpful change in weather means firefighters can
take a break to see their families after weeks of
being away from home.
The fires may be dying down, but the disaster is not
over yet. Almost 27,000 people are still living in
Practice with Inferences
1. What can you infer from the passage?
A. The firefighters had to work hard to make sure
that wildlife in the nearby forests would be safe.
B. Without the colder temperatures, firefighters
would have had a harder time fighting the fires.
C. Now that the fires are contained, there isn't a real
threat, and the disaster is finally over.
D. Now that it's the rainy season, California will have
to deal with future floods and thunderstorms.
Practice with Inferences
The truck was round and short and rusty. Painted on the side
were the words, "Preston's Pest Control." It had a sharp,
metal bumper on the back and a large snow plow on the
front. There was a hose attached to it that was dripping a
bright green liquid.
What can you infer from the description of the truck?
 A. The truck is dangerous for children to play around.
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B. The truck is so old that it does not run.
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C. The truck has not been used in years.
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D. The truck is used only during the winter.
Practice with Inferences
The clock struck 8:00 PM, and I had just gotten my little brother and
sister into bed. I stumbled back down the hallway to the living room,
grabbed my backpack, and cleared off the kitchen table. It was
finally time for me to start my homework, and I had a lot to do. After
my homework, I would fix a plate for my dad and set it in the
microwave with heating instructions taped to the door. He would get
in long after I had gone to bed, and he appreciated the little things I
did to help him.
For the last month, this had been my life. My mother had moved to
California for six months to film a low-budget movie, leaving my dad
to care for three children. At twelve, I became the woman of the
house. My dad switched to the night shift at the factory so that he
could be home with my brother and sister while I went to school.
While he was at work, I took care of my brother and sister, made
dinner, and cleaned the house. I actually liked cooking. I
experimented with food and created a few masterpieces out of a little
pasta, some meat, and leftover vegetables. After eating one of my
creations, Dad said he could see me working in a big city restaurant,
serving famous people. I smiled at that idea. It would be fun.
Practice with Inferences
 A. She does not have a job.
 B. She is a movie actress.
 C. She makes a lot of money.
 D. She hates leaving her family.
Which sentence from the story best supports the conclusion
that the narrator would like to be a chef someday?
 A. My mother had moved to California for six months to film
a low-budget movie, leaving my dad to care for three children.
 B. I experimented with food and created a few masterpieces
out of a little pasta, some meat, and leftover vegetables.
 C. I stumbled back down the hallway to the living room,
grabbed my backpack, and cleared off the kitchen table.
 D. My dad switched to the night shift at the factory so that
he could be home with my brother and sister while I went to
school.
Light Bulb Inference Activity
There are many kinds of students who attend Conrady
Junior High School. Some students are Caucasian, some
are Arabic, some are Polish, some are Lithuanian, some
are Hispanic, and some are African American. The
students range from 11 to 14 years of age.
What can you infer from the passage?
A. Conrady is the greatest school in the world.
B. Conrady is a diverse school.
C. All students from Conrady are from a different country.
D. Conrady celebrates the nationalities of each student.
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