European exploration in North America Georgia Performance Standards • SS4H2 The student will describe European exploration in North America. a. Describe the reasons for, obstacles to, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French, and English explorations of John Cabot, Vasco Nunez Balboa, Juan Ponce de Leon, Christopher Columbus, Henry Hudson, and Jacques Cartier. b. Describe examples of cooperation and conflict between Europeans and Native Americans. SS4G2 The student will describe how physical systems affect human systems. b. Describe how the early explorers adapted, or failed to adapt, to the various physical environments in which they traveled. Essential Questions • Why were Europeans interested in world exploration? • What were some of the opportunity costs involved in European exploration? • What influence did the Europeans and Native Americans have on each other? • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the relationships between Native Americans and Europeans? Europeans arrive in the Americas • In 1420, the oceans of the world were a mystery to most Europeans. • In 1492, Christopher Columbus asked King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to pay for a westward voyage to Asia. They agreed to pay for the voyage because they hoped that they Columbus would find gold and spices in Asia. Christopher Columbus meeting with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Christopher Columbus • Columbus set sail from Spain on August 3, 1492. • He carried enough supplies to last for a year and close to 90 men traveled in three ships named the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. • On October 12, 1492, the ships arrived at an island in the Caribbean Sea that Columbus named San Salvador which today is part of the Bahamas. • Columbus thought that he had reached land off the coast of Asia, near India so he named the islands the West Indies and the people living on them Indians. • Columbus and his men were the first Europeans to meet the people of the Caribbean who called themselves the Taino (TY noh) which means “good”. • Columbus returned to Spain and made three more voyages to the Caribbean. • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella wanted Columbus to start settlements (a small community of people living in a new place) and to search for gold. Columbus sailed a fleet of 17 ships back to the islands and began claiming more land for Spain. • Columbus and the settlers had to adapt to their new physical environment. • They bought new crops such as wheat, barley, and sugar cane and found ways to grow them in the new land. • They also brought animals such as horses, pigs, and cows, which had not previously lived in the Americas. • The Europeans adapted to their environment but they hurt the Taino environment. • The Europeans cut down rain forest and built sugar plantations. Many of the American plants and animals were destroyed by the Europeans. • The Europeans also brought diseases to Taino that they never had. Within 50 years of Columbus’ arrival, almost no Taino people were left. • Columbus returned to Spain with plants, such as corn, peanuts, potatoes, tomatoes, chocolate, peppers, beans, and squash that no one in Europe had ever seen. • The movement of plants, animals, and people between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres is known as the Columbian Exchange. John Cabot • Was an Italian explorer • The king of England paid for his voyage across the Atlantic Ocean where he reached presentday Canada, which he thought was Asia. • He did not find people, silks, or spices but he did find a rich fishing area of the coast of Canada. • People began sailing to these waters. John Cabot thought that he could reach Asia by sailing across the Atlantic Ocean. Once people knew that the land that he found was not Asia, explorers continued to search for a water passage through the North American continent. Jacques Cartier • In 1534, he continued France’s search for a water route to Asia. • He sailed far up the St. Lawrence River in Canada. • He faced many obstacles, especially the cold climate and short growing season. • Over time, people began to come to the region to trade for furs. Vasco Nunez de Balboa (VAS coh NOON yez deh bal BOH ah) • Balboa was a Spanish explorer who traveled to present-day Panama in Central America. • In 1513, he crossed the mountains and jungles of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean. Balboa’s Travels Juan Ponce de Leon (pon seh deh leh OHN) • Juan Ponce De Leon was a conquistador (Spanish for conqueror) • He was the first conquistador to reach what is now the United States. • In 1513, he led an expedition to presentday Florida where he claimed the area for Spain. • As the conquistadors traveled the land in search of gold, they found many American Indians. • The conquistadors fought and enslaved the American Indians. Many of the Spanish died in the battles as well. • The conquistadors also faced many obstacles, including long distances, bad weather, and starvation as they explored the continent. Henry Hudson • The Dutch wanted to search for a Northwest passage too so a Dutch trading company hired Henry Hudson, an English captain, to search for the passage. • The Dutch are the people of the Netherlands. • Hudson sailed up the Hudson River in present-day New York and made claims for the Dutch. • In 1610, he made a voyage for England where he found the bay known as Hudson Bay in present-day Canada. • One obstacle Hudson faced was the cold climate, which he failed to adapt to. • He stayed too long in the bay and ice trapped the ship for an entire winter. • His unhappy crew later set him adrift in a small boat where he was never seen again. • Even though his voyage was unsuccessful in finding a Northwest Passage, it did lead to England claiming the land around Hudson Bay.