Viking Discovery in the New World Erik the Red Leif Erikkson Erik the Red landing in Iceland Viking Ship Prince Henry the Navigator- (Portugal) set up a center for exploration. Astronomers, geographers, and mathematicians all gathered in one place to share ideas. Really laid the groundwork for the Age of Exploration. Bartholomew Dias- (Portugal)- Sailed around the southern tip of Africa and named it Cape of Good Hope. Wanted to continue to India to be the first European explorer to establish an all water trade route with Asia, but his crew mutinied and turned around. Vasco de Gama- (Portugal)- Followed Dias’ route to the Cape of Good Hope then continued up the east coast of Africa all the way to India. The first European to make this all water voyage to Asia and establish trade with India. His voyage was so important, most people forgot about Columbus. Amerigo Vespucci- (Portugal)- Explored east coast of South America. He was the first person to suggest the lands found and discovered by Columbus and John Cabot had discovered were actually new, unknown lands. A German map maker eventually named the two new continents after him, and the name “America” has stuck ever since Christopher Columbus European Voyages of Exploration: Christopher Columbus Three Ships, sailing for Spain- Santa María, Pinta (the Painted) and Santa Clara, nicknamed Niña (the Girl). Four Voyages- Looking for all water route to Asia by going west instead of around Africa Led to widespread European exploration and colonization in North and South America Died disgraced and poor never knowing he had found land previously unknown to Europe Columbian Exchange - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Juan Ponce de Leon- (Spain)- “Discovered” Florida. He was searching for the Fountain of Youth. He was eventually killed by Native Americans many years later. Vasco Núñez De Balboa- (Spain)- Arrived in Panama as a stowaway onboard a Spanish ship. He gathered a group of people to hack through the Panamanian jungle in search of another ocean. He traveled 45 miles to find what he called the South Sea. Later, it was renamed the Pacific Ocean. He was the first European to see this body of water. Hernán(do) Cortés- (Spain)- Conquered the Aztec Empire and killed their leader- Montezuma. He robbed the Aztecs of their gold, silver and jewels. Many Aztecs were killed by the weapons of Cortez and his Conquistadors, but disease played a much larger role in conquering the Aztecs. Ferdinand Magellan- (Spain)- Found a strait at the tip of South America that now bears his name- Strait of Magellan. When he passed through this strait he became the first European to sail on the ocean Balboa had named the South Sea. Magellan renamed it the Pacific Ocean because the waters were so calm and peaceful. He eventually sailed to the Philippines where he was killed in a conflict with the natives. His crew continued and became the first crew to ever circumnavigate the earth. Of the original 300 sailors, only 18 survived the entire journey. His journey proved many things: 1. The earth is a sphere and Asia could be reached by sailing west. 2. The earth was larger than people thought. 3. There is more water than land on earth. 4. The lands “discovered” by Columbus and Cabot were indeed new continents, not just islands. 5. There was no passage south through the continents, so future explorers would have to search north for an all water route through the Americas. Francisco Pizarro- (Spain)- Heard of an empire even wealthier than the Aztecs farther south. Assembled 200 men and traveled to present-day Peru to conquer the Inca. He easily did this, took their valuables, and claimed Peru as part of the Spanish empire. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca- (Spain)- In an expedition with Panfilo de Narvaez to explore the Southeastern US. He was one of 4 men out of 800 who survived this 8 year expedition from Florida to Texas. His name translates to Head of Cow. Hernando de Soto- (Spain)- He was the first European to see the Mississippi River. He was looking through the southeastern part of what is now the US for riches like Cortez and Pizarro. He died of fever in 1541, and his men dropped his body into the Mississippi to hide it from natives. Francisco Coronado- (Spain)- His quest was to find Cibola- the Seven Cities of Gold. He had heard that gold was so plentiful there, the natives used it for everyday items like tools. He had also heard the streets were paved with gold. After two years of searching the deserts in what is now the southwestern US, he found Cibola. It was nothing more than a poor native village. He returned to Mexico with just 100 of his original 300 men. Jacques Cartier- (France)- Searched the east coast of North America looking for the Northwest Passage. He “discovered” and explored the St. Lawrence River. He claimed the land for France and named it New France. This land is now known as Canada. Samuel de Champlain- (France)- Also searched New France for a Northwest Passage. He established the city of Quebec. He explored the Great Lakes and made extensive maps of the area. He inspired many French people and other Europeans to want to settle in the New World. He also traded with and befriended the natives while living among them. Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet –(France)- Explored the Mississippi River all the way to Arkansas. Father Marquette converted many natives to Catholicism on the journey while Joliet made detailed maps of the Mississippi. Their voyage proved the Mississippi flowed to the Gulf of Mexico and not the Pacific. Robert de LaSalle- (France)- He explored the entire length of the Mississippi River. He claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for France. He named the new territory Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV of France. He also “discovered” and explored some of the Ohio River. Sir Francis Drake- (England)- He was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the earth. He was also the Vice Admiral of the navy when it defeated the Spanish Armada. This established English sea supremacy. The Spanish know him as a pirate who stole many of their gold-laden ships. John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto)- (England)- He is believed to be the first European since the Vikings to go ashore on the mainland of North America. The English used this “discovery” to lay claim to all of North America. Henry Hudson- (Holland)- Searched for Northwest Passage. Explored Hudson River and Hudson Bay. Thought the Hudson Bay was the NW Passage. When his men discovered it wasn’t, they set Hudson and his son adrift in the icy waters never to be heard from again. Holland used his discoveries to claim land in what is now New York. They eventually established a colony called New Amsterdampresent-day New York.