Landscape Lighting - Lightcraft Outdoor Environments

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Landscape Lighting 101
The Fundamentals of
Landscape and Outdoor Lighting
Our Mission:
Helping our customers learn, implement and make money by adding professional
lighting systems to their landscape projects.
LIGHT CLUB USA
INNOVATION THROUGH TECHNOLOGY
Who We Are
Bruce Dennis, President and Founder- is a Third Generation Lighting Designer/ Manufacturer of
Professional Grade Outdoor Lighting.
• Specialty
Low Voltage Lighting (12v)
Safe, efficient and easy to install
High Voltage Lighting (120v)
Very high lumen requirements and decorative lighting
LED Lighting
The future is here. Eliminates a lot of complexity.
Custom Decorative Lighting
Every project is unique. Separate yourself from your competitors.
Solar Lighting
The ultimate in clean technology. New efficient LEDs allow for smaller solar
panels and power supplies.
Why Landscape Lighting ?
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What lighting can do
Create a magical nighttime environment while improving the value of the property and it’s usage.
Why 12v lighting?
Safe, efficient and easy to install. Smaller fixtures allow for the light to be seen and not the fixture.
Safety
Lighting will identify potentially dangerous conditions on the property
Security
Deters potential criminal activity and deters aggressive animals from entering the property
Beauty
Lighting will bring the property to life after dark and highlight the beauty of the natural elements
Entertainment
Lighting will allow the property to be used for events, leisure activity and festival occasions at night
Property values and curb side appeal
A well lit landscape adds immediate value to the property
Learning Objectives Within This Presentation
This presentation will cover the basics as well as advanced design concepts.
An email copy of this presentation is available upon request.
• Basics of professional lighting vs. home center products
• Basics of lighting fundamentals
• Basics of lighting “lingo”
• Basics of lighting design
• Basics of Kelvin light color and affect on landscape materials
• Basics of landscape lighting fixtures
• Basics of light bulbs
• Basics of landscape cables
• Basics of voltage drop and consistent voltage
• Basics of power supplies / transformers
• Basics of low voltage installation and wiring techniques
• Basics of fixture mounting options
• Basics of trouble shooting
• Basics of estimating lighting projects
• Basics of sales and presentation of landscape lighting
• Basics of energy costs
• Basics of new technology- LED
• Basics of new technology- Solar
Landscape Lighting (12v) Fixtures
Professional Grade- What to look for?
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Non ferrous materials
No Rust or Corrosion
“Omni Volt” design
Products that are capable of ranging from 12v ,24v and 120v
Glare reduction feature (adjustable)
Shields, Lenses, Louver Options
Wicking Prevention
Rear Anti- Siphon Plug
“Gasket Design”
O Ring or Gasket Moisture Seal. Sealed ports and rubber plugs.
Convex Lens
Convex shaped lens to allow water run off.
Optional features (i.e.. lens compatibility)
Ability to take multiple optic lenses- glare, color, filters, etc.
Spare Parts for Maintenance
Spare parts are essential for long term maintenance and must be available.
Optional Accessories (base mounts and stems)
A professional installation will allow for custom mountings, stems and accessories.
Landscape Lighting (12v) Fixtures, continued
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Natural finishes (no paint or powder)
Finishes that hold up in harsh climates and that will not easily chip, flake or peel.
200 degree sockets with stabilizing clip
High temperature components that can withstand heat and extreme temperatures
Value Engineering
Well built fixtures that are not over priced for the majority of your clients
Life Time Warranty
Fixtures that will stand the test of time in the harsh outdoor environment
Wire Options from Mfg.
Having the ability to customize wire length leads can make your installation quicker and more
profitable
Professional Lighting vs. Home Center Products
Fixture Material:
Home Center: Plastic Low Grade Aluminum
Professional: Brass, Copper and Stainless Steel
Sockets:
Home Center: Plastic or Steel
Professional: High Temperature Porcelain, Brass
Finish:
Home Center: Baked Enamel, Powder Coat
Professional Grade: Natural Finishes, Anodized and Primed Powder Coat and / or PVD
Lenses:
Home Center: Plastic or Untreated Glass
Professional Grade: Tempered Glass
Wire Type:
Home Center: Lamp Cord
Professional Grade: High Temperature
Professional Lighting vs. Home Center Products cont.
Knuckle / Swivel:
Home Center: Light Weight Cast Aluminum or Pot Metal
Professional Grade: Heavy Duty with Multiple Settings or Precise Aiming
Glare Control:
Home Center: Minimal
Professional: Shielded Lamps
Accessory Options:
Home Center: Minimal or None
Professional: Lenses, Louvers, Risers, Stakes and Shrouds
Sealing:
Home Center: Minimal
Professional: Moisture Prevention from Top, Middle and Wire Exit
Life Expectancy, Durability and Warranty:
Home Center: 1 year average
Professional Grade: Life Time
Lighting Lingo – How We Measure Light
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Efficacy- Energy shown in lumens per watt (lpw)
Lumen- Intl Measurement for visible, spherical light
LPW- Lumens per Watt- Lumens output divided by consumed watts
Foot Candles- Measures light on a surface
Foot Candle- One foot candle equals one lumen per sq. foot
Candle Power- Measure light in a specific direction
Lux- European- Shown as 10x Foot Candle
Kelvin Temperatures- Colors of the spectrum
Watts- Measures heat; not light output
Lumen Maintenance/ Dep.- the degree in which LPW is maintained
CRI- Color Rendering Index (1-100). Intl for light quality
Lamp Delineation- MR, R, PAR, A, E12, E27, T, G and GU
Lamp Design- Measured in 1/8 of an inch (ex; MR16)
Watts to Lumens- Approx. 10-14 x factor (avg.)
LED Measurements- In the past LEDs were point source and not spherical in design. Today we can
measure LPW (L/W), Lumens and Foot candles (light falling on a surface).
Lighting Lingo- Glossary of Common Terms
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Amps / Amperage- The “engine”- Measures the flow of electricity through a wire
Volts- The “speed and acceleration”- Measures the pressure through a wire
Watts- The “amount of fuel used”- Measures the energy consumed (MPG)
Circuit- An “electrical branch” off the main power supply
Resistance- Electrical pressure on the wire impairing the flow of electricity
Voltage Drop- Percentage of diminished voltage
Photo-metrics- A measure of a fixtures actual light output at various distances
Lamps- The technical term for a light bulb
Beam Spread- A degree of width at the farthest measurement on a directional lamp
Ohms Law- V x A = Watts
Multi Tap- A power source that has the ability to accommodate several voltages
Arc-ing- A electrical fault where the current is unstable- usually from a loose connection
Home Run- A loop from a wire back to the power supply
AC- Alternating Current. Normally used in “daisy chain” wiring
DC- Direct Current. Electricity flows in one direction. Normally used in battery technology and LED
electronics
Series vs. Parallel Wiring- Series are wired together and Parallel are separated. With Parallel, if one
light goes out the others stay on. With Series wiring, one light will affect the whole chain.
Kelvin Temperature and Light Color
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1500k = Candle Light
2200k = Low Wattage Incandescent
2700k-3000k = Very Warm Incandescent
3000k = Warm White or Halogen
3500k = Neutral White
4100k = Neutral / Cool White
5000-6000k = Daylight
5500k = Sun at Noon
9500k = Clear Blue Sky
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Typical Residential: 2700k - 3000k
Typical Commercial: 4100- 5000k
Note: Higher Kelvin has more Lumen Output and Contrast
CRI- Color Rendering Index
Intl. Standard Measuring Light Quality
Average CRI is 50.
High Quality CRI is 70 +
Basics of Lighting Design – How to Prepare?
•What to light? Critical overview of property
•What are customers requirements, likes and dislikes
•What is the objective (safety, security, beauty, energy efficiency, etc.)
•What are the important areas of the property
•Look for competing light sources (street, house, neighbor)
•Determine the effects that will be important
•Harmonize and consider natural elements
•Accentuate key elements of the property
•Determine electrical load that is available
•Determine zones for proper wiring
•A little light goes along way in dark environments
•It’s all about the lamp
•Determine what to light
•Determine light levels and requirements
•Types of Colors (Kelvin)
•Ambient Lighting- below 40 lpw
•General Lighting- 40-50 lpw
•Task Lighting- 50-70 lpw
Lighting Design - Planning Check List
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Overview of the property- features, boundaries and key elements of interest
View the property at night- identify safety and other elements that are hidden in darkness
How much light will be required? Interview and listen to the property owners
Decide on a theme or concept: natural, entertainment, festive, subtle, romantic, color, etc.
Paint and frame with illumination: Accentuate key elements and focal points
Offer various illumination levels- “stage” light with effect. Use light level contrast for impact.
Compliment other lighting- interior, house lighting, neighborhood
Consider the budget- Type, quantity and material of fixture,
Switching requirements- Determine what is best- timer, photo cell, motion or remote control
Future growth of the landscape- Plan for the future. Allow enough cable and power.
Maintenance- Think of re-lamping and servicing of the fixture.
Landscape Lighting Installation- Planning by Zone
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Stage the property into “zones”. This will be helpful for wiring, power supplies and maintenance.
Determine the zone by transformer and access to electricity
How many fixtures in the zone?
How many watts in the zone?
Design for proper and consistent voltage
Size for the appropriate transformer
Size the appropriate cable
Determine wiring method- daisy, loop, T or hub
Flagging the zones
Lighting Techniques- Landscape Lighting
(with illustration hand out)
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Up Lighting
Down Lighting
Moon Lighting
Accent Lighting
Spread Lighting
Shadowing
Silhouetting
Cross Lighting
Transitional
Mirror
Pool and Fountain
Festive Lighting
Fiber Optics
RGB
What not to do•
Do not over light
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Avoid glare
It’s all about the bulb. Common 12v Lamps for Landscape Lighting
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Halogen- MR8, MR11, MR16
Bi Pin Halogen
PAR 36
Single Contact
Double Contact
Wedge
Medium Base
Candle Base
Beam Spreads by Degree
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12 Degree= Narrow Spot
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14 Degree= Spot
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24 Degree= Medium Spot
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36 Degree= Medium Flood (most popular)
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60 Degree= Wide Flood
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120 Degree= Super Flood
Light Bulbs (12v) cont.
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Ratings:
Incand- 700-1000 hrs , 10-17 lpw
Halogen- 2,000- 18,000 hrs, 10-20 lpw
Fluorescent- 10,000 – 40,000 hrs, 30-60 lpw
HID- 10,000- 20,000 hrs, 70-115 lpw (incl, MH, HPS, LPS)
LED- 30,000- 50,000 hrs, 70-100 lpw
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Watch Out:
Black Filament
White Gas
Ansi Code
Bulb Measurements
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How to increase lamp life:
Lamp Quality
Voltage at lamp
Retro Fit
Lamp Types cont.
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A- Incandescent Type , Medium Base, E26
MR- Mirrored Reflector, Bi Pin
R- Reflector / Indoor
PAR- Parabolic Aluminum Reflector / Outdoor
Candle- E12
T-Tube or Glass Size
G- Pin Type Size
GU- 120v Double Pin MR16
JC- Jr. Contact
G- Globe
SC- Single Contact Bayonet
DC- Double Contact Bayonet
JDR- Medium Base, E26
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Note: Lamps are measured in 1/8’s
Ex:MR16 = 2” (16 divided by 8)
What fixture/lamp for what application cont.
Average size tree at 10 ft
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10w – 20w MR16
Average size tree at 20 ft
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20w – 35w MR16
Average size palm tree at 30 ft
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35w- 50w MR16
Walls, Shrubs, Walkways and Landscape Areas
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20w or 35w T3
Stairs and Steps
10w-20w T3 or Single Contact Bayonet
Large Trees
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35w- 50w PAR36 or MR16
Notes:
The more narrow the beam angle the greater the lumens.
Beam angles change geometrically as distance increases
Lenses, Louvers, Frosting and Coatings all affect the beam angle
Light bounces off of reflected materials (trees)- so a wider angle
may not affect the object being illuminated.
Landscape Wire and Cable
Cable size and type is critical to a successful installation
Wire size is basically the number of copper strands. Just like water through a pipe, the flow is critical.
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Stranded Cable vs. Solid Cable (120v or 12v)12v current runs through stranded cable while 120v current runs on the outside of the cable
12v Wire Sizes- Largest to Smallest
8/2, 10/2, 12/2, 14/2, 18/2
Wire Chart
Shows the difference in cable properties- strands, load, size
Burying the Wire
We recommend PVC sleeve to protect the cable
Wire Connections
We recommend gel filled wire nuts or grease tubes to keep moisture from the copper
contacts.
Voltage Drop and Consistent and Equal Voltage
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Voltage drop definition
The degree in which voltage is diminished affecting lamp performance.
A standard 12v lamp requires a consistent 11.0v to 12v for a successful installation.
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Voltage drop can be overcome in several ways:
# of Fixtures
Size of Cable
Wattage Load
Multi Tap Transformer
Note: LED is fast becoming the better alternative as
LEDs have a lot more flexibility at 9v – 14v range.
- Less worry about voltage at the first light
- Less worry about finger oils
- Less worry about voltage control
Voltage Affect on Lamps
Consider that lamp life is rated on averages of 50%.
This means half of the production life will last longer and
half of the production life will last shorter.
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13v= 131% Output = 35% of rated life
12.5v= 120% Output = 67% Rated life
12.0v= Mean Base Line
11.6v= 93% Output = 200% Rated Life
11.0v= 75% Output = 300% Rated Life
10.5v= 65% Output = 500% Rated Life
10.0v= 50% Output = 900% Rated Life
Pop Corn Effect: As lamps begin to expire, voltage/current will rise
and affect current, resistance and voltage. This condition is
problematic with 12v-22v multi-tap power supplies and daisy chain
wiring methods.
Wiring Methods
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Daisy Chain- Wiring from one fixture to the next.
Positive: Easy install
Negative: Voltage drop and voltage consistency
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Looping- Running a wire from the last light back to the transformer
Positive: Easy with no thinking
Negative: Does not address voltage at the first few lights
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T or Hub- Running a cable to a centralized zone and then tapping off to fixtures
A Hub is basically a T within a direct burial splice containment
Positive: Equalizes voltage and removes the error of over exposure at the first few lights
Negative: Uses more wire
Best and Recommended:
T or Hub in zones
Daisy Chain with LED in zones
Power Supplies / Transformers
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A transformer is essentially an electrical device that “transforms” or steps down higher voltage to
lower voltage (typically 120v to 12v).
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A transformer is made of copper windings which slows down the speed of electrical current.
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Transformers are available in a variety of wattages, voltages, materials, protection and accessory
options.
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Landscape transformers are typically 120v / 12v AC.
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The transformer is the heart of a good landscape lighting installation.
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A good transformer has the following features:
Made of non-ferrous materials, has multiple voltage options, primary and secondary protection and
options for timers, photo cells and remote control switching.
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A multi-tap transformer offers incredible solutions to compensate for voltage drop.
12-15 volt or 12-22v
Tools of the Trade
Tools of the trade- What you need on the truck.
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Amp probe- Test the primary voltage first (110-130v)
Digital Voltage meter
Continuity tester
Wire cutter / stripper
No oxidation grease
Gel filled connectors
Shovel, Spade and Trowel
Color flags
Electrical tape
Zip ties
Fixture load and wiring diagram for future maintenance
Important:
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Use di-electric, no ox or lithium grease on all connections!
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Make sure all connections are tight!
Custom Mounting Options and Long Term Success- It’s all in the details.
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Determine weather changes throughout the year
Determine upcoming landscape changes
Standard ground stakes
Permanent posts
Risers
Surface mounts
Tree mounts
Estimating Lighting Projects
A 12v installation still requires a review of available 110v. The load factor on the GFI outlet requires
enough amperage to accommodate any new lighting installation.
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Determine total electrical load (wattage) required
Determine electrical access and availability
Determine the # of fixtures
Determine the quantity of cable required
Consider wire runs and access from power supply
Determine standard halogen design or LED installation
On average- one experienced installer can put in 25 fixtures per day
KISS- We recommend a unit price cost per fixture which includes ALL materials
Cost and Profit
Profit Margins – It’s in the details!
Cost of Fixture
Cost of Wire
Cost of Power Supplies
Cost of Lamps
Cost of Connections
Cost of Labor
How to Select Fixtures
When to Scale Up
When to Scale Down
Tricks of the Trade
A typical installation can earn a profit of $1,000.00 per day.
Note: Many contractors include the total price of the project into the cost of the fixture. For example, an
estimate may say that each fixture is $200.00 to simplify the proposal. This represents all costs
associated with the installation, including labor.
Sales and Presentation
Finding and closing projects is as important as any other tool. Your marketing materials are critical
unless all of your business in word of mouth. Clients are typically visual.
The sale will be much easier if the client can visualize what they are going to receive. Lighting
projects are easier than other installations as demo kits will provide the sample taste to generate
interest.
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Marketing and lead generation
Net working, web site, door hangers, direct marketing
Setting up the client meeting
The importance of image and pictures
The importance of branding
Letters of recommendation
Web Site
Factory Endorsement and Warranties
Demo Kits
Calculating Energy Costs -a topic for every lighting proposal
Most clients are very concerned about cost of their electricity
Watts is energy consumed no matter what technology
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Total Watts x Hours of Use x KWH rate (.15)
Divide by 1000
Equals Cost of Electricity
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Example:
1000 watts (total fixtures) x 10 hours per day divided by 1000 x .15 x 365 days in use
= $547.50 annual cost
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Understanding Tier-ed RatesTake a look at your electric billBase Rate- Initial rate for electricity
Delivery Rate- Cost of Delivery to Property
Tier Rate- Starts and base line and increases with usage levels
Note: There is no average on a KWH rate
Why LED?
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A discussion of energy costs will usually lead to the hot topic of LED. This technology creates a
great “buzz” and most clients are extremely interested in low energy products.
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Easier Installation
Less Cable
Lower Transformer Wattage and Cost
Longer Life
9v to 14v Voltage Range
Less Voltage Drop
Less Worry About First Fixture Voltage
Greater Color Options
Solar Compatible
New Technology- LED
Led is the most efficient light source available
Led lamps last 30,000 hours (avg.)
Led lamps operate with virtually no heat or affect to room temperature
Led lamps offer tremendous energy savings
Led lamps are shock and vibration resistant
Led lamps do not produce UV and are safe for art and textiles
Led lamps offer vibrant color options
Led lamps are the basis for new solar technology
LED lamps have a lumen maintenance ratio of 70%, which simply means that they hold
performance
LED lamps are now available in most standard bases and sizes
LED lamps can now be mixed with AC and DC power
LED lamps in a retro fit form are preferred as LED’s continue to improve every year
LED lamps not only saves electricity but also reduce cable, transformer and maintenance
costs
LED Basics
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Identify the need for LED vs. other lamp options
Consider the fixtures and environment
Understand that LED fundamentals are constantly changing
Use only replaceable or service-able LEDs
Stay away from old technology (5mm and low power chips)
Watch for extremes in voltage fluctuations
Don’t lock yourself in. Make sure you have options in the future
Consider Kelvin colors. Customers are very picky about color pallet
Same fundamentals as a low voltage systems
The new LED’s are now compatible with AC power (DC technology)
T Method or Hub Method recommended
Can be mixed with standard 12v
Voltage Drop Formula and Amp Ratings- See Load Info
Solar LED - The Next Frontier
Stand Alone Solar Power is gaining in popularity but had limitations that were hard to overcome…
until now. To create enough power to accommodate a 300 watt + system required a large and
expensive solar panel. With low energy LEDS the wattage requirement is dramatically reduced,
allowing smaller and less expensive independent solar power generation.
What is Solar Power?
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Stand Alone Portable Solar vs. Grid Solar?
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What is a Solar “transformer”
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Why LED Solar
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Benefits of Solar
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Overview or Solar Hybrid Power Transformer
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Now Available
12v and 120v Solar Transformers
12v AC Landscape Solar Transformers
Hybrid Solar- Solar power coupled with 110v (solar to line voltage).
Additional Revenue for your Lighting Projects
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Service and Maintenance Contracts
Revisiting Past Clients
Updating Efficiency with Technology- LED and /or Solar
Planning for Growth
Changing Needs of the Landscape , Property and Owner
Other Lighting Potential Interior
Customer Projects Outside the Home
Referrals
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