Paul_Bony_Short_utility_course_session_1

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Geothermal Heat Pumps A - Z
Session 1
Understanding Geothermal Heat Pumps and their
Value to Utilities
2012 Illinois Geothermal Conference
Peoria, IL
February 28, 2012
Paul Bony
Director Of Residential Market Development
ClimateMaster
1
ClimateMaster
Introduction To Ground Source
Heat pumps (GSHP)
Subjects to be covered
•
•
•
2
The history of GSHP
How GSHPs Work
Why GSHPs are of Value to Electric
Utilities
ClimateMaster
Earth Energy – It’s Not New
3
•
Earth energy system was first patented in
Switzerland in 1912
•
Residential system installed in Canada in 1950
ClimateMaster
Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy
Heat Pump Systems are Reliable
Mr. Bill Loosley installed geothermal system in
his home in Burlington, ON in 1950
4
Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy
ClimateMaster
Mr. Loosley’s System:
Belt drive
compressor
5
Air coil in old
oil furnace
Desuperheater
added to hot water
tank
ClimateMaster
Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy
Heat Pump Systems are Reliable
Compressor was initially
powered by hand crank
diesel motor… changed
to electric motor (still
being used!!) in 1953
when his wife couldn’t
start it.
6
Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy
ClimateMaster
GSHP Basics
7
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
combine Sun, Earth and Water
using proven technology…
… to create “the most energy-efficient,
environmentally clean, and cost-effective
space-conditioning system”
(according to U.S. EPA 1993)
8
ClimateMaster
Geothermal System Components
•
•
9
Heat pump
Ground loop
ClimateMaster
Heat Pumps Are All Around Us
Air conditioners and air-source
heat pumps transfer heat from
inside houses to the air outside
HEAT
HEAT
B
B
B
10
Refrigerators transfer
heat from food into
the kitchen
ClimateMaster
Heat Pump Components






11
Compressor
Refrigerant reversing valve
Fluid heat exchanger – ground loop (Coax)
Metering device – TXV
Air heat exchanger – air coil
Electrical Controls
ClimateMaster
Option
12
ClimateMaster
Simple Concept


Water moves energy better than air does
Water in the ground provides renewable energy
Typical water-refrigerant Heat Exchanger used in most GSHP
equipment
13
ClimateMaster
13
47% of the solar energy falling on our planet
is absorbed by the Earth’s surface…
14
ClimateMaster
… maintaining a nearly constant temperature
throughout the year just below ground
15
ClimateMaster
Earth is a better Energy Source
16
ClimateMaster
The Earth is the Source of
Heat in Winter…
72°F
Outdoor air
design temperature:
-5°F
50°F
A geothermal heat pump transfers underground
heat into the building to provide heating
17
ClimateMaster
…and an Efficient Place to Reject or
Store Heat in Summer…
74°F
Outdoor air
design temperature:
95°F
50°F
A geothermal heat pump transfers heat from
the building into the ground to provide cooling
18
ClimateMaster
…using Heat Pump Technology
Geothermal heat pumps
circulate water through a sealed
underground piping loop where
it is naturally warmed (or
cooled) by the Earth
19
ClimateMaster
Geothermal System Components
Ground loop
Three basic designs
Horizontal
Open Loop
Vertical
20
ClimateMaster
Vertical Closed-Loop Installation
Drilling
Pipe Loop
Insertion
Heat Fusing
Inside
Connection
21
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency
1 unit of energy
from the grid
Plus:
3-5 units of “free” energy
from the earth
22
Yields:
4-6 units of energy
for the building
400-600% Efficient
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Equipment
•
The equipment keeps getting better
•
•
•
Fits load control and peak time pricing
•
•
24
“COP’s” (% efficiency) are reaching 5 (500%)
Hybrid units can greatly reduce installation costs
Can be tied to a gas furnace for load control
Water to water units can support thermal storage
for expanded peak clipping
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Heat Pumps
Self-contained
heating, cooling
and hot water
ClimateMaster
25
Geothermal Heat Pumps
are one of the Most Effective
and Deployable Technologies…
… producing the lowest carbon dioxide
emissions, including all source effects, of all
available space-conditioning technologies
(EPA, 1993)
26
ClimateMaster
27
ClimateMaster
“Ground Source Heat Pumps
offer the greatest potential for
energy efficiency of any existing
technology”
(EPRI Dec 2009)
28
ClimateMaster
Buildings Dominate U.S. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions
with Heating, Cooling, and Water Heating being the Largest Contributors
Thermal Loads
Heating
9.2%
Cooling
4.3%
Hot Water
3.8%
Total
17.3%
~ 20% of all U.S. Carbon Emissions
29
ClimateMaster
HVAC Energy Use Comparisons
Reduces energy consumption by 50%
Conventional HVAC - Home
Geothermal HVAC - Home
30
ClimateMaster
Ordinary Furnace Efficiency
5 - 30% of Energy Lost (unusable energy)
To Outdoors Through the Chimney
1 Unit
Of Fuel
Used To
Generate
Heat
(Purchased)
31
Only 70 - 95% of
Energy Purchased
Gets Into the Home
(usable energy)
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency
1 unit of energy
from the grid
Yields:
4-6 units of energy
for the building
Plus:
3-5 units of “free” energy
from the earth
32
400-600% Efficient
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Heat Pumps
Energy Savings - Residential
1300 Square Foot Habitat for Humanity Home
Demonstrated Residential Savings…
ClimateMaster
33
Habitat for Humanity
Average of 16 Homes - Total Site Energy Use in 2007
40.00
47% Site Energy Savings
35.00
30.00
kWh per M
2
25.00
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
Jan-07
Feb-07
Mar-07
Apr-07
May-07
Geothermal
Jun-07
Jul-07
Aug-07
Sep-07
Oct-07
Nov-07
Dec-07
Gas Furnace w A/C
ClimateMaster
34
Demand Impacts

Each residential heat pump linked to
geothermal system can reduce peak loads
in (US DOE)



Residential (Electric Program)
•
•
•
35
Summer by 1–2 KW vs. AC
Winter by 4–8 KW vs. AAHP & ER
Over 10 million residential consumers
Assume just 1 KW reduction per installation
10,000 MW demand reduction
ClimateMaster
Demand Impacts
GHP Summary
kW/ton at 85 F Outside Air Temperature
EER
36
GHP
Value
.5 kW/
ton
GHP
#1
15.1 0.89
GHP
GHP
#2
#3
0.84
0.83
Average *Difference vs
13 SEER AC
0.85
0.45
16
0.85
0.81
0.81
0.82
0.48
17
0.80
0.77
0.78
0.78
0.52
*Assumes 13 SEER AC at 105° F outside air temperature is about 1.3 kW/ton
GHP EER of 15.1 is our minimum standard for rebate
ClimateMaster
Demand Impacts
ClimateMaster is working with the Utility Geothermal
Working Group and Oak Ridge National Lab to develop a
national GSHP demand and energy savings “map” using
eQuest (DOE 2) modeling for utility program managers.
Max kw

4.00
3.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
Austin
TX model
results
1
37
2
3
4
5
6
7
Month
8
9
10
11
12
Monthly Electric Peak Demand Comparison at
Same Peak Time
ClimateMaster
Proposed EER 18.5
Baseline SEER 10
Demand Impacts
4 ton Geo vs. Conventional –Home Peaks – Denver Colorado
Monthly Electric Peak Demand Comparison at Same Peak Time
Avg. of 2.1kw savings
7.00
6.00
Max kW
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1
38
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Month
Proposed EER 17.9
Baseline SEER 10
ClimateMaster
11
12
Energy Savings - Commercial
Demonstrated Commercial Buildings Savings
39
ClimateMaster
A Tale of Two Buildings
PROJECT RESULTS FROM:
A “side by side” Comparison of a Ground
Source Heat Pump System vs.
Conventional HVAC System between two
“identical” buildings.

40

Palo Alto, CA
Oklahoma City, OK
ClimateMaster
Oklahoma City - Garrett Buildings
Conventional 15,000 sq ft Built in 1987
Conventional Roof Top VAV Building
GHP 20,000 sq ft Built in 1997
40 boreholes drilled 250 feet deep on 20 foot
centers and 3/4 inch PE pipe
16 Ceiling Mounted Units
41
ClimateMaster
Garrett Office Buildings
Actual Metered Annual Energy Use
2006-2007
47% Site Energy Savings
90
80
70
kBtu per Square Foot
60
50
Total
Electricity
Gas
40
30
20
10
42
VAV System
Geotherm al
ClimateMaster
Garrett Office Buildings
Monthly Peak Demand 2006-2007
35% Peak Demand Reduction
6.0
5.5
Watts per Square Foot
5.0
4.5
VAV System
4.0
Geothermal
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
Jul-06
43
Aug-06
Sep-06
Oct-06
Nov-06
Dec-06
Jan-07
Feb-07
Mar-07
Apr-07
May-07
Jun-07
ClimateMaster
Load Factor (4 yr Monthly
Average)
50
45
40
35
30
Geothermal
25
Conventional
20
15
10
5
44
0
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
ClimateMaster
Palo Alto, California Buildings
45
ClimateMaster
2183 and 2185 Park Blvd Buildings
46

Two Stories

10,000 sq ft each

Built in the 1960s
ClimateMaster
Palo Alto Buildings Energy Costs
$12,000
construction
$10,000
$8,000
Geothermal
$6,000
Conventional
$4,000
$2,000
47
$0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
ClimateMaster
2005
2006
Hourly Load Curve Sample 08/22/06
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
Geothermal
Conventional
4000
3000
2000
1000
48
0
Midnight
4am
8am
Noon
4pm
ClimateMaster
8pm
Proven Benefits: GSHP retrofit of 4,000 buildings/homes at Fort Polk - 1994
Evaluation showed 33% kWh savings, 43% lower summer peak kW demand, and
improved load factor (0.52 to 0.62)
ORNL/CON-460 @ www.ornl.gov/sci/ees/etsd/btric/ground-source.shtml
Typical distribution feeder
(16 in all)
Army’s
existing meter
Current transducers
on secondary leads to
existing meter
New recording watt
meter,
modem,
and phone line
To recorder
Buried phone line to
nearest pedestal
49
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Heat Pumps


50
The difference in the before and after
system efficiency = carbon emissions
savings.
300,000 GSHP retrofits could save
approximately the carbon emissions of a
500 mW coal plant (which serves 300,000
+/- homes!)
ClimateMaster
Tri State Market

Kansas City, MO Vs. Louisville, KY

Kansas City
–
–

Louisville
–
–
51
4,750 heating degree days
1,325 cooling degree days
4,610 Heating degree days
1,443 cooling degree days
ClimateMaster
Tri State Market

US DOE Build America model home
–
–
–


GSHP with Desuperheater (TTS)
Vs. Packaged Single Zone Unit with Gas
Furnace
–
52
2,400 sq. feet
6 tons of heating & cooling
Gas water heater
–
10 SEER central AC
78 AFUE gas furnace
ClimateMaster
Tri State Market
Electric (kWh)
53
Space Cool
Heat Reject.
Refrigeration
Space Heat
HP Supp.
Hot Water
Vent. Fans
Pumps & Aux.
Ext. Usage
Misc. Equip.
Task Lights
Area Lights
Total
Geo
Conventional
2,392
6,489
3,110
1,510
9,770
2,643
25,913
6,389
832
9,770
2,643
19,634
ClimateMaster
Tri State Market
Gas (kBtu)
Conventional
Area Lights
4,273
2,753
-
174,696
17,523
2,753
-
Total
7,025
194,972
Space Cool
Heat Reject.
Refrigeration
Space Heat
HP Supp.
Hot Water
Vent. Fans
Pumps & Aux.
Ext. Usage
Misc. Equip.
Task Lights
54
Geo
ClimateMaster
Tri State Market

Combined Electric & gas savings (site Btu)
–
Geo



–
Conventional gas & AC



55

25,913 kWh X 3,413 Btu/kWh = 88,441,069 Btu
7,025,000 gas Btus
95,466,069 annual Btus
19,634 kWh X 3,413 Btu/kWh = 67,010842 Btu
194,972,000 gas Btus
261,982,842 annual Btus
63.6 % annual savings – site Btu
ClimateMaster
Tri State Market
Electric Demand (kW)
Space Cool
Heat Reject.
Refrigeration
Space Heat
HP Supp.
Hot Water
Vent. Fans
Pumps & Aux.
Ext. Usage
Misc. Equip.
Task Lights
Area Lights
Summer peak
56
Geo
3.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.2
0.0
1.8
0.0
0.1
5.9
Conventional
7.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
1.8
0.0
0.1
9.8
4.5 kW /.8
kW/ton
40% peak
demand
reduction
4kW/.7 kW
per ton
ClimateMaster
Tri State Market
Monthly Electric Peak Demand Comparison at Different Peak Time
57
Peak Time
1/4/10 19:00
2/20/10 23:00
3/25/10 22:00
4/1/10 22:00
5/17/10 18:00
6/27/10 18:00
7/19/10 18:00
8/5/10 18:00
9/25/10 18:00
10/14/10 18:00
11/28/10 19:00
12/17/10 20:00
GSHP with Desuperheater
Max kw
7.74
7.56
7.17
5.42
4.30
5.34
5.80
5.86
4.59
4.85
6.16
8.18
HVAC System AC & Gas Furnace
Peak Time
Max kw
1/4/10 19:00
3.08
2/20/10 20:00
2.91
3/25/10 21:00
2.75
4/28/10 18:00
7.06
5/17/10 18:00
6.77
6/27/10 18:00
8.43
7/23/10 18:00
9.25
8/4/10 18:00
9.85
9/25/10 18:00
7.05
10/14/10 18:00
7.70
11/28/10 19:00
2.99
12/17/10 19:00
3.17
ClimateMaster
Tri State Market
Monthly Electric Peak Demand Comparison at Different Peak Time
12.00
10.00
Max kw
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
1
58
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Month
Proposed EER 18.5
Baseline SEER 10
ClimateMaster
12
Tri State Market
Monthly Electric Peak Demand Comparison at Same Peak Time
59
Peak Time
1/4/10 19:00
2/20/10 20:00
3/25/10 21:00
4/28/10 18:00
5/17/10 18:00
6/27/10 18:00
7/23/10 18:00
8/4/10 18:00
9/25/10 18:00
10/14/10 18:00
11/28/10 19:00
12/17/10 19:00
GSHP with Desuperheater
Max kw
7.74
7.38
7.17
4.44
4.11
4.99
5.48
5.61
4.14
4.53
6.16
8.07
Peak Time
1/4/10 19:00
2/20/10 20:00
3/25/10 21:00
4/28/10 18:00
5/17/10 18:00
6/27/10 18:00
7/23/10 18:00
8/4/10 18:00
9/25/10 18:00
10/14/10 18:00
11/28/10 19:00
12/17/10 19:00
Gas Furnace & AC
Max kw
3.08
2.91
2.75
7.06
6.77
8.43
9.25
9.85
7.05
7.70
2.99
3.17
ClimateMaster
Tri State Market
Monthly Electric Peak Demand Comparison at
Same Peak Time based on conventional system
12.00
10.00
Max kw
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Month
60
Proposed EER 18.5
Baseline SEER 10
ClimateMaster
12
Existing Housing Stock (# Homes) - 2005
Gas – 5.3 million
Electric – 1.0 million
Propane – 800k
Heat Pump – 400k
Oil – 200k
Other – 200k
Gas – 13.1million
Electric – 1.3 million
Propane – 1.1 million
Heat Pump – 800k
Oil – 700k
Other – 700k
Gas – 5.7 million
Electric – 4.3 million
Propane – 800k
Heat Pump – 900k
Other – 400k
EIA 2005 Residential
Energy Consumption Survey
61
ClimateMaster
Geo Heat Pump Retrofits in Existing Homes - Example
of Annual Energy and Carbon Savings Potential
CO2 – 8.4 MMT
Summer Peak – 1.2 GW
Winter Peak– 0.8 GW
Electric – 6.3 Billion kWh
Primary – 0.12 quad Btu
Geo Units – 0.6 million
Cost - $6 to $8 billion
Savings - $1.6 billion / yr
Assumed Market
Penetration:
25% of homes
without
access to natural gas
62
CO2 – 10.0 MMT
Summer Peak – 1.9 GW
Winter Peak– 0.3 GW
Electric – 6.8 Billion kWh
Primary – 0.14 quad Btu
Geo Units – 1.0 million
Cost - $10 to $14 billion
Savings - $2.7 billion / yr
CO2 – 14.4 MMT
Summer Peak – 3.1 GW
Winter Peak– 9.7 GW
Electric – 25.4 Billion kWh
Primary – 0.21 quad Btu
Geo Units – 1.5 million
Cost - $15 to $21 billion
Savings - $3.3 billion / yr
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Heat Pumps
are the Most Efficient way to convert
Green Energy
into Heating, Cooling and Water Heating
Making the most effective use of this precious resource
No Carbon Electricity = carbon free heating, cooling & water
heating
63
ClimateMaster
The payback on
Geothermal Systems
is many times faster
than solar PV
But….Geo plus PV (or
micro wind) can provide a
zero energy home/building
with no net off-site
electricity or fossil fuel
required
65
ClimateMaster
Market Growth
66
ClimateMaster
North American Geothermal Industry Shipments
Single Family Residential - 63% of Total
Continued Growth Despite a Slow Economy
ClimateMaster
67
GHP Market Growth

68
Since their introduction in the 1980’s, over 1.5
million geothermal heat pumps have been
installed in the united states
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Heat Pump
DOE Industry Roadmap Growth Goal
1 Million GHPs Annually by 2017 (39% CAGR)
Results in 3.3 million cumulative GHP installations by 2017


26 MMT annual CO2 reduction
520 MMT lifecycle CO2 reduction over 20 yr GHP life
Creates 100,000 new jobs
Conventional A/C and heat pump market is 6 to 8 million units annually
69
ClimateMaster
Why All the Interest?
70
ClimateMaster
Proven Technology
•Millions of units installed world-wide in commercial
and residential applications
Most Energy-Efficient and Environmentally
Friendly HVAC System Widely Available
•Water is a better heat transfer medium than air
•Heat exchange loops tap the renewable energy of the Earth
71
ClimateMaster
No Fossil Fuel
•Improves safety
•Eliminates service lines, flues, outside air intakes
•No site emissions
Long Equipment Life
•Factory sealed systems
•Indoor installation – no exposure to the elements
•Moderate compressor loading vs. air-source systems
Self Contained Compact Units
•Hidden within attics or installed in closets
•No vandalism or theft concerns
•Up-flow, horizontal, or down-flow single-package units
•Split system and water-to-water units available
•If outdoors
•Better aesthetics
•No noise
72
ClimateMaster
Using a Single Geothermal Heat Pump
is Equivalent to
Planting an Acre of Trees
73
ClimateMaster
The payback on
Geothermal Systems
is many times faster
than solar PV
74
ClimateMaster
Geothermal Systems can be Classified as:
Solar
Geothermal
Renewable
Alternative
Demand-Side
75
Conservation
Energy-Efficiency
Zero-Ozone Depleting
Environmentally Responsible
ClimateMaster
Heat Pump Energy Efficiency
Take -aways
76
•
Geothermal is the most efficient method of heating
and cooling a home
•
Geothermal is both a renewable and energy
efficient technology
•
Geothermal reduces utility peaks and improves
load factor
•
There is no question – IT DOES WORK! ClimateMaster
Thank You For Your Attention!
Questions?
If you ever need a hand
you can reach me at:
Paul Bony
[email protected]
77
970-249-8476
ClimateMaster
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