Beer 101

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Beer 101
Syllabus
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An introduction to beer: facts, history, and uses
I encourage discussion and participation
I discourage questions
Mark breakdown:
 21%
Midterm 1
 21% Midterm 2
 50% Final Project
 .08 Blood alcohol level
Introduction – What is beer?

“An alcoholic beverage made by brewing and
fermentation from cereals, usually malted barley,
and flavored with hops and the like for a slightly
bitter taste.”
Source: dictionary.com
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Global revenue of $294.5 billion in 2006
 That’s
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133 billion Litre’s worth
Beer is found all over the world
 Some
of you may have even had beer!
An artists rendition of a world
without beer

Notice the lack of fun

P.S. Sorry Family Guy
Beer in the ancient world
Beer in the ancient world
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Beer dates back to around 6th century BCE
Most likely the result of spontaneous fermentation of breads
Beer was an important beverage in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia
and was used in religious ceremonies and as gifts to the pharaoh
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30,000 gallons a year was offered to the gods
Even the dead were buried with beer!
A medical document written around 1600 BCE lists 700
prescriptions, around 100 of which contain beer
The Greeks felt beer was an integral part of a healthy diet
They spread the art of brewing to the Romans, who spread it to
Britannia
Beer in the medieval world
Beer in the medieval world
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Monks built the first breweries, and were pioneers of the hotel;
offering shelter, food, and drink to traveling pilgrims
Beer was generally brewed by women

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Beer was preferred over water, since it was often more sanitary
Beer also provided much needed calories to the generally lowcalorie diets of the day
Though popular, beer was disdained by science because Ancient
Greek physicians had no experience with beer
The use of hops in beer was written about in 822, but perfected in
Germany in the 13th century
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They were cooks, and beer was considered “food-drink”
Until then it was difficult to establish the right proportion of ingredients
Hops allowed the beer to be exported
Beer in early modern Europe
Beer in early modern Europe
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By the 15th century, almost half of the cargo taken across the North
sea and Baltic sea were barrels of beer
Beer making changed from a family activity to an artisan activity
Ale and beer became synonymous in the 16th century
William Shakespear’s father was an Ale Connor
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Sat on ale in leather breeches to test for sugar
In the 16th century, The Dean of St Pauls invented the beer bottle
Also in the 16th century, Benjamin Franklin recorded the daily
consumption in a London printing house to be five pints per
employee
Lager is discovered after beer stored in cool caverns
Beer in the Industrial Revolution
Beer in the Industrial Revolution
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The advent of the steam engine allowed for the industrialization of
beer
Prior to the late 1700’s, malt was dried with fires made from wood
charcoal, straw, or coke

They were not able to shield the malt from smoke, giving the malt a
smoky flavour
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Using a hydrometer, brewers could calculate the yield from different
malts

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Wood smoked malt was supposedly horrible
Pale malts gave the highest output, and coloured malts were added in
small amounts to achieve the correct colour
The use of a drum roaster allowed for the creation of very dark,
roasted malts, giving rise to stouts
After the Industrial Revolution
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Bootleggers watered down their beer to increase
profits during prohibition. This practice changed
the American palette, which prefers milder beers
to this day
In Europe, live beer (“real ales”) have become
popular
 Unfiltered, unpasteurized brews containing live yeast
 Develop flavour and character over the course of
several decades as opposed to several weeks or
months
Ingredients
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Water
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Or “H2O”
Starch
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The most important ingredient for providing character to a beer
Most common source is malted grain
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Hops
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From the flower of the hop vine
Provide bitterness to balance the sweetness of the malt
Add floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours
Antibiotic properties favour brewers yeast over less desirable microorganisms
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Responsible for fermentation (metabolizing sugars from the malt)
Can influence the flavour of the beer
Clarifying Agent
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Preservative!
Yeast
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Grain is soaked to expedite germination, then dried and roasted in a kiln
Used to precipitate any leftover proteins after brewing
Spices and fruits
Love
Brewing
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Mashing
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Sparging
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The wort is then boiled to steralize it, and remove the water so that only the sugars and other components
remain.
Hops are added at this stage
The longer the hops boil, the more bitterness they add, but the less flavour they add
Fermentation
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The mash is rinsed through a porous barrier called a lauter-tun that allows the fermentable liquid to pass, but
not the grain.
This liquid is called the wort
Boiling

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The temperature of a water/starch mixture (usually malted barley) is raised to activate enzymes which break
down the starch into fermentable sugars
The boiled wort is cooled and put into a fermentation vessel along with yeast. The mixture is allowed to
ferment anywhere from a week to a month. Yeast and sediment settle, and the resultant clear liquid is the
beer.
Packaging
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Beer is put into the vessel in which it will be served.
It can be carbonated artificially
It can also be carbonated naturally by adding small amounts of fresh wort, sugar, and/or yeast
Tasting
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Aroma
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Flavour
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Colour, clarity, nature of the head
Mouthfeel
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From the type and amount of malt used, flavour of the yeast, and the bitterness
of the hops
Appearance

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Can come from the malt, strength of the hops, alcohol, esters, or other
ingredients
The feel of beer in the mouth, both from the thickness of the beer and from
carbonation. Carbonation can cause the beer to seem creamy or prickly
Strength
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Original gravity – the amount of fermentable material (density of the wort)
Final gravity – the density of the beer after fermentation


In dry beer, more sugar is converted to alcohol during fermentation, non-dry beer is thus
sweeter
Alcohol by volume
Pop quiz!
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What is the difference between beer, ale,
and mead?
Pop quiz!

Mead is made from honey, water, and
yeast
 Honeymoon
is derived from the month long
supply of mead given to a newlywed couple in
order to help conceive a child

Beer and ale are the same thing
 Originally
ale meant beer with no hops
Types of Beer

Ales
Use “top-fermenting” yeast which is unable to metabolize certain sugars. This
results in a fruitier, sweeter beer. Top fermenting yeast rises to the top of the
vessel during fermentation.
 Fermented at higher temperatures than lager beer (15–23°C )
 Ale yeasts at these temperatures produce significant amounts of esters resulting
in a flowery, fruity aroma
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Pale ale
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Dark ale
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The red colour comes from the use of roasted barley. Has a malty, caramel flavour.
Cream ale
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Brewed using dark roasted barley malts. Also called stout.
Irish red ale
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Brewed using a pale barley malt. Hop levels can vary.
Brewed to be light in colour, hop and malt flavour is subdued.
Brown ale
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Brewed with a darker barley malt, lightly hopped and fairly mildly flavoured with a slightly nutty
taste.
Types of Beer
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Lager
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The most commonly consumed style
Fermentation occurs at around 7-12°C using a “bottom
fermenting” yeast
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Then cooled at 0-4°C
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“Fermentation phase”
“Lagering phase”
The lager clears and mellows
Inhibits the production of esters, resulting in a “crisper” (less fruity)
tasting beer
Has more fizz than ale
Premium Lager? No such thing.
Types of beer
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Lambic
 Brewed
using wild, not cultivated yeasts. This
is the style of beer people brewed until the
middle ages.
 This process is called spontaneous
fermentation. Most cereals can undergo
spontaneous fermentation by being exposed
to the air.
Midterm 1: Match the glass types to their picture
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Pilsner glass
Pint glass
Beer Stein
Wheat beer glass
Yard glass
Midterm 1: Match the glass types to their picture
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Pilsner glass
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Pint glass
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The lid keeps the beer in the glass
while you sing a hearty tune
Wheat beer glass
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Anything goes!
Beer stein
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For pilsner and light beers
The shape allows for greater
production of foam, and exposure
to air when tilted back
Yard glass

1 yard long, 3 pint volume. Used
in drinking games (drink the whole
thing without pausing for breath!)
Nutrition
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The good

Beer has no fat! Oil would ruin the head and mouthfeel. Some believe
that overeating and a sedentary lifestyle cause the infamous “beer belly”
and not the product itself. (bar food anyone?)
 Moderate consumption of beer results in a decreased risk of cardiac
disease, stoke, and cognitive decline
 Brewers yeast is a rich source of nutrients including magnesium,
selenium, potassium, phosphorus, biotin and B-vitamins
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The bad
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Heavy consumption of alcohol can lead to liver disease, pancreatitis,
and gout
The ugly

Ugly people can look good when you’ve had too many beers
How much can you drink?
DRINKS
Body weight
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
100 lb.
0.038
0.075
0.113
0.15
0.188
0.225
0.263
0.3
0.338
0.375
0.413
0.45
110 lb.
0.034
0.066
0.103
0.137
0.172
0.207
0.241
0.275
0.309
0.344
0.379
0.412
120 lb.
0.031
0.063
0.094
0.125
0.156
0.188
0.219
0.25
0.281
0.313
0.344
0.375
130 lb.
0.029
0.058
0.087
0.116
0.145
0.174
0.203
0.232
0.261
0.29
0.32
0.348
140 lb.
0.027
0.054
0.08
0.107
0.134
0.161
0.188
0.214
0.241
0.268
0.295
0.321
150 lb.
0.025
0.05
0.075
0.1
0.125
0.151
0.176
0.201
0.226
0.251
0.276
0.301
160 lb.
0.023
0.047
0.07
0.094
0.117
0.141
0.164
0.188
0.211
0.234
0.258
0.281
170 lb.
0.022
0.045
0.066
0.088
0.11
0.132
0.155
0.178
0.2
0.221
0.244
0.265
180 lb.
0.021
0.042
0.063
0.083
0.104
0.125
0.146
0.167
0.188
0.208
0.229
0.25
190 lb.
0.02
0.04
0.059
0.079
0.099
0.119
0.138
0.158
0.179
0.198
0.217
0.237
200 lb.
0.019
0.038
0.056
0.075
0.094
0.113
0.131
0.15
0.169
0.188
0.206
0.225
210 lb.
0.018
0.036
0.053
0.071
0.09
0.107
0.125
0.143
0.161
0.179
0.197
0.215
220 lb.
0.017
0.034
0.051
0.068
0.085
0.102
0.119
0.136
0.153
0.17
0.188
0.205
230 lb.
0.016
0.032
0.049
0.065
0.081
0.098
0.115
0.13
0.147
0.163
0.18
0.196
240 lb.
0.016
0.031
0.047
0.063
0.078
0.094
0.109
0.125
0.141
0.156
0.172
0.188
Source: http://www.drunkdrivingdefense.com/general/bac.htm
You burn 1.5% (0.015) per hour
Beer culture
Midterm 2 – match the brand to the slogan
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Coors
Molson
Budweiser
Alexander Keith’s
Corona
Stella Artois
Labatt
Fosters
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“The king of beers”
"Miles away from the ordinary"
"Brewed with pure rocky
mountain spring water"
“I am Canadian”
“Australian for beer”
“A whole lot can happen out of
the blue”
“The pride of Nova Scotia”
“Reassuringly expensive”
Festivals
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Oktoberfest
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17 or 18 day festival celebrated in Germany
Attracts 6-7 million visitors annually
A special Oktoberfest beer is brewed, and the keg is tapped by
the mayor of Munich to start the festival
The one sausage-fest worth going to
Great British Beer Festival
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“The biggest pub in the world”
Over 450 beers from British breweries, and 200 foreign brands
Held during the first full week in August
Advertising

Beer advertisements are heavily censored
 They
cannot promote immoderate consumption
 They cannot target minors

They can only be shown in T.V. ads where 70% of the
audience is above the age of 21 (in the U.S.)
 They
cannot promote the effects of alcohol
 They cannot drink beer during a T.V. commercial

Beer producers are extremely creative with their
advertisements
Examples of advertisements
Final Project
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Koerners!
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