Beer 101 Syllabus An introduction to beer: facts, history, and uses I encourage discussion and participation I discourage questions Mark breakdown: 21% Midterm 1 21% Midterm 2 50% Final Project .08 Blood alcohol level Introduction – What is beer? “An alcoholic beverage made by brewing and fermentation from cereals, usually malted barley, and flavored with hops and the like for a slightly bitter taste.” Source: dictionary.com Global revenue of $294.5 billion in 2006 That’s 133 billion Litre’s worth Beer is found all over the world Some of you may have even had beer! An artists rendition of a world without beer Notice the lack of fun P.S. Sorry Family Guy Beer in the ancient world Beer in the ancient world Beer dates back to around 6th century BCE Most likely the result of spontaneous fermentation of breads Beer was an important beverage in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and was used in religious ceremonies and as gifts to the pharaoh 30,000 gallons a year was offered to the gods Even the dead were buried with beer! A medical document written around 1600 BCE lists 700 prescriptions, around 100 of which contain beer The Greeks felt beer was an integral part of a healthy diet They spread the art of brewing to the Romans, who spread it to Britannia Beer in the medieval world Beer in the medieval world Monks built the first breweries, and were pioneers of the hotel; offering shelter, food, and drink to traveling pilgrims Beer was generally brewed by women Beer was preferred over water, since it was often more sanitary Beer also provided much needed calories to the generally lowcalorie diets of the day Though popular, beer was disdained by science because Ancient Greek physicians had no experience with beer The use of hops in beer was written about in 822, but perfected in Germany in the 13th century They were cooks, and beer was considered “food-drink” Until then it was difficult to establish the right proportion of ingredients Hops allowed the beer to be exported Beer in early modern Europe Beer in early modern Europe By the 15th century, almost half of the cargo taken across the North sea and Baltic sea were barrels of beer Beer making changed from a family activity to an artisan activity Ale and beer became synonymous in the 16th century William Shakespear’s father was an Ale Connor Sat on ale in leather breeches to test for sugar In the 16th century, The Dean of St Pauls invented the beer bottle Also in the 16th century, Benjamin Franklin recorded the daily consumption in a London printing house to be five pints per employee Lager is discovered after beer stored in cool caverns Beer in the Industrial Revolution Beer in the Industrial Revolution The advent of the steam engine allowed for the industrialization of beer Prior to the late 1700’s, malt was dried with fires made from wood charcoal, straw, or coke They were not able to shield the malt from smoke, giving the malt a smoky flavour Using a hydrometer, brewers could calculate the yield from different malts Wood smoked malt was supposedly horrible Pale malts gave the highest output, and coloured malts were added in small amounts to achieve the correct colour The use of a drum roaster allowed for the creation of very dark, roasted malts, giving rise to stouts After the Industrial Revolution Bootleggers watered down their beer to increase profits during prohibition. This practice changed the American palette, which prefers milder beers to this day In Europe, live beer (“real ales”) have become popular Unfiltered, unpasteurized brews containing live yeast Develop flavour and character over the course of several decades as opposed to several weeks or months Ingredients Water Or “H2O” Starch The most important ingredient for providing character to a beer Most common source is malted grain Hops From the flower of the hop vine Provide bitterness to balance the sweetness of the malt Add floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours Antibiotic properties favour brewers yeast over less desirable microorganisms Responsible for fermentation (metabolizing sugars from the malt) Can influence the flavour of the beer Clarifying Agent Preservative! Yeast Grain is soaked to expedite germination, then dried and roasted in a kiln Used to precipitate any leftover proteins after brewing Spices and fruits Love Brewing Mashing Sparging The wort is then boiled to steralize it, and remove the water so that only the sugars and other components remain. Hops are added at this stage The longer the hops boil, the more bitterness they add, but the less flavour they add Fermentation The mash is rinsed through a porous barrier called a lauter-tun that allows the fermentable liquid to pass, but not the grain. This liquid is called the wort Boiling The temperature of a water/starch mixture (usually malted barley) is raised to activate enzymes which break down the starch into fermentable sugars The boiled wort is cooled and put into a fermentation vessel along with yeast. The mixture is allowed to ferment anywhere from a week to a month. Yeast and sediment settle, and the resultant clear liquid is the beer. Packaging Beer is put into the vessel in which it will be served. It can be carbonated artificially It can also be carbonated naturally by adding small amounts of fresh wort, sugar, and/or yeast Tasting Aroma Flavour Colour, clarity, nature of the head Mouthfeel From the type and amount of malt used, flavour of the yeast, and the bitterness of the hops Appearance Can come from the malt, strength of the hops, alcohol, esters, or other ingredients The feel of beer in the mouth, both from the thickness of the beer and from carbonation. Carbonation can cause the beer to seem creamy or prickly Strength Original gravity – the amount of fermentable material (density of the wort) Final gravity – the density of the beer after fermentation In dry beer, more sugar is converted to alcohol during fermentation, non-dry beer is thus sweeter Alcohol by volume Pop quiz! What is the difference between beer, ale, and mead? Pop quiz! Mead is made from honey, water, and yeast Honeymoon is derived from the month long supply of mead given to a newlywed couple in order to help conceive a child Beer and ale are the same thing Originally ale meant beer with no hops Types of Beer Ales Use “top-fermenting” yeast which is unable to metabolize certain sugars. This results in a fruitier, sweeter beer. Top fermenting yeast rises to the top of the vessel during fermentation. Fermented at higher temperatures than lager beer (15–23°C ) Ale yeasts at these temperatures produce significant amounts of esters resulting in a flowery, fruity aroma Pale ale Dark ale The red colour comes from the use of roasted barley. Has a malty, caramel flavour. Cream ale Brewed using dark roasted barley malts. Also called stout. Irish red ale Brewed using a pale barley malt. Hop levels can vary. Brewed to be light in colour, hop and malt flavour is subdued. Brown ale Brewed with a darker barley malt, lightly hopped and fairly mildly flavoured with a slightly nutty taste. Types of Beer Lager The most commonly consumed style Fermentation occurs at around 7-12°C using a “bottom fermenting” yeast Then cooled at 0-4°C “Fermentation phase” “Lagering phase” The lager clears and mellows Inhibits the production of esters, resulting in a “crisper” (less fruity) tasting beer Has more fizz than ale Premium Lager? No such thing. Types of beer Lambic Brewed using wild, not cultivated yeasts. This is the style of beer people brewed until the middle ages. This process is called spontaneous fermentation. Most cereals can undergo spontaneous fermentation by being exposed to the air. Midterm 1: Match the glass types to their picture Pilsner glass Pint glass Beer Stein Wheat beer glass Yard glass Midterm 1: Match the glass types to their picture Pilsner glass Pint glass The lid keeps the beer in the glass while you sing a hearty tune Wheat beer glass Anything goes! Beer stein For pilsner and light beers The shape allows for greater production of foam, and exposure to air when tilted back Yard glass 1 yard long, 3 pint volume. Used in drinking games (drink the whole thing without pausing for breath!) Nutrition The good Beer has no fat! Oil would ruin the head and mouthfeel. Some believe that overeating and a sedentary lifestyle cause the infamous “beer belly” and not the product itself. (bar food anyone?) Moderate consumption of beer results in a decreased risk of cardiac disease, stoke, and cognitive decline Brewers yeast is a rich source of nutrients including magnesium, selenium, potassium, phosphorus, biotin and B-vitamins The bad Heavy consumption of alcohol can lead to liver disease, pancreatitis, and gout The ugly Ugly people can look good when you’ve had too many beers How much can you drink? DRINKS Body weight 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 100 lb. 0.038 0.075 0.113 0.15 0.188 0.225 0.263 0.3 0.338 0.375 0.413 0.45 110 lb. 0.034 0.066 0.103 0.137 0.172 0.207 0.241 0.275 0.309 0.344 0.379 0.412 120 lb. 0.031 0.063 0.094 0.125 0.156 0.188 0.219 0.25 0.281 0.313 0.344 0.375 130 lb. 0.029 0.058 0.087 0.116 0.145 0.174 0.203 0.232 0.261 0.29 0.32 0.348 140 lb. 0.027 0.054 0.08 0.107 0.134 0.161 0.188 0.214 0.241 0.268 0.295 0.321 150 lb. 0.025 0.05 0.075 0.1 0.125 0.151 0.176 0.201 0.226 0.251 0.276 0.301 160 lb. 0.023 0.047 0.07 0.094 0.117 0.141 0.164 0.188 0.211 0.234 0.258 0.281 170 lb. 0.022 0.045 0.066 0.088 0.11 0.132 0.155 0.178 0.2 0.221 0.244 0.265 180 lb. 0.021 0.042 0.063 0.083 0.104 0.125 0.146 0.167 0.188 0.208 0.229 0.25 190 lb. 0.02 0.04 0.059 0.079 0.099 0.119 0.138 0.158 0.179 0.198 0.217 0.237 200 lb. 0.019 0.038 0.056 0.075 0.094 0.113 0.131 0.15 0.169 0.188 0.206 0.225 210 lb. 0.018 0.036 0.053 0.071 0.09 0.107 0.125 0.143 0.161 0.179 0.197 0.215 220 lb. 0.017 0.034 0.051 0.068 0.085 0.102 0.119 0.136 0.153 0.17 0.188 0.205 230 lb. 0.016 0.032 0.049 0.065 0.081 0.098 0.115 0.13 0.147 0.163 0.18 0.196 240 lb. 0.016 0.031 0.047 0.063 0.078 0.094 0.109 0.125 0.141 0.156 0.172 0.188 Source: http://www.drunkdrivingdefense.com/general/bac.htm You burn 1.5% (0.015) per hour Beer culture Midterm 2 – match the brand to the slogan Coors Molson Budweiser Alexander Keith’s Corona Stella Artois Labatt Fosters “The king of beers” "Miles away from the ordinary" "Brewed with pure rocky mountain spring water" “I am Canadian” “Australian for beer” “A whole lot can happen out of the blue” “The pride of Nova Scotia” “Reassuringly expensive” Festivals Oktoberfest 17 or 18 day festival celebrated in Germany Attracts 6-7 million visitors annually A special Oktoberfest beer is brewed, and the keg is tapped by the mayor of Munich to start the festival The one sausage-fest worth going to Great British Beer Festival “The biggest pub in the world” Over 450 beers from British breweries, and 200 foreign brands Held during the first full week in August Advertising Beer advertisements are heavily censored They cannot promote immoderate consumption They cannot target minors They can only be shown in T.V. ads where 70% of the audience is above the age of 21 (in the U.S.) They cannot promote the effects of alcohol They cannot drink beer during a T.V. commercial Beer producers are extremely creative with their advertisements Examples of advertisements Final Project Koerners!