Delayed Independence

advertisement
Delayed Independence
Angola- Portuguese colony
Feb1961 riots in Luanda as members of Movimento
Popular de Libertacao de Angola- MPLA tried to free
political prisoners from city prison
Luanda White population went on rampage attacking black
people
March 1961 Revolt broke out in Northern Angola 6,000
African loyalist $ 2000 whites killed by suppoters of
Uniao Das Poplacoes de Angola -UPA led by Holden
Roberto. This was the largest number of whites killed in
any anti- colonial struggle at a time. UPA operated
from Zaire and Roberto was influenced by Lumuba
Angola
•
•
UPA was supported by Bakongo people –lived both sides of Angola and
Zaire
1962 UPA merged with other party to form Frente Nacional de
•
•
Libertacao de Angola -FNLA adopted guerrilla tactics.
Portuguese were totally unprepared and had to seek help from
•
Portugal of 50,000 troops who suppressed the revolt and killed over
50,000 Africans.
1962& 64 Other revolts took place that were severely crushed,
•
•
Portuguese attacks were severely criticized in UN by all countries except
SA and Spain
•
Minimal changes were made but Portuguese refused to decamp and
remained in power
The Struggle
• The struggle in Angola took longer period due to 3 reasons;
• 1.Portugese determination to suppress them
• 2. Determination by the Nationalist to continue the struggle.
• 3.Disunity among the Nationalists themselves.MPLA seen as urban
• based and mostly composed of mesticos -Afro- Portuguese vs
• FNLA supported by indigenous people mostly Bakongo in Northern
Angola
• 1966 Jonah Savimbi leaves FNLA and forms UNITA- Uniao
• Nacional para a Independecia Total de Angola
• Each of the three main groups started attacking Portuguese from
different directions
• Continued with guerrilla fight
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
OAU Assisted in Angola especially the MPLA which was operating in Zambia and
FNLA from Zaire.
By early1970s many of Portuguese forces had become Africanized and so were not
cruel to the people
1975 Transitional Govt set up and the parties consolidated their military and
political positions FNLA- North, MPLA Luanda & Mbundu hinterland, UNITA –SouthCentral districts
June 1975 Transitional govt collapsed
FNLA & UNITA supported by USA and China
MPLA Supported by Soviet
Cold civil war ensued Cuba sent troops as South African forces
invaded, forcing them to withdraw.
Strikes continued and Portuguese forces morale was low.
•
•
•
African countries intervened, Kaunda of Zambia, Mobutu of Zaire,
1978 South Africa forces attacked again. US moved in to protect Cabindas oil and
later 1978 Angola attains independence 16 YEARS AFTER OTHERS
•
•
•
SOUTH AFRICA
• Delayed Independence due to mineral
resources. Dominant White regime.
• Had large number of educated blacks by 1945 in
the continent- black clergy , lawyers, doctors,
teachers
• South Africans also attended the Manchester
Pan African Conference in 1945 and were
influenced by Kwame and Kenyatta
• 1945 ANC African National Congress demanded
one man one vote and freedom of movement.
SOUTH AFRICA
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1958 Kwame held the All African Conference in Ghana where Solidarity was
pledged and agreed on non cooperation with SA.
1950s decade of peaceful demonstrations and passive resistance led by,
Albert Lithuli,
Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisuli, Mandela continued the struggle through the
armed wing of ANC Umkonto we Siswe -Burning spear
March 1960 Macmillan told SA that a wind of change was blowing through
Africa, but 6 weeks later the Sharpeville massacre of school children took
place.
The world was horrified by Apartheid and trading embargo put in place by
African countries, Murder condemned by the World
Struggle continued1963 Mandela and 6 others jailed for life in Robin Island
and joined Robert Sobukwe leader of PAC but ANC
continues the struggle
1970s-1980s international pressure mounts on USA, Britain and other
countries still trading with SA OR THOSE WITH COMPANIES THERE
FOR ECONOMIC SANCTIONS
OAU
•
•
Platform for pressure to decolonize
Technical Planning .
•
•
•
Financial Assistance
.
Material assistance e.g. weapons and military clothes& medicine
•
Networking with the other countries
•
Military training for guerrillas
•
•
Operation bases for prescribed parties e.g. FRELIMO in TZ.
Psychological Support
•
Porous-Open boarder policy –people fleeing bad rule find safe place in neighboring
countries.
•
“OAU was the fire that cooked food behind the scene for people to eat”
Download
Related flashcards

Nuclear weapons

38 cards

Geopolitics

16 cards

Treaties of Russia

16 cards

Create Flashcards