Challenges for Photonics

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1530_tuesday_6738-22_johnny_heikell
HELICOPTERS ON THE
ASYMMETRIC BATTLEFIELD:
CHALLENGES FOR
PHOTONICS
Dr.EW Johnny Heikell
Espoo, FINLAND
URL: http://www.heikell.fi
----------------------------------------------------E-mail: [email protected]
Tel: +358-(0)50-918 2758 (Mobile)
Fax/Voice messages: +358-(0)9-803 8182
© Johnny Heikell 2007
© Johnny Heikell 2007
Asymmetric conflicts
 Conducted increasingly in urban
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environments
Littoral operations becoming more
common
Entire operational area is a combat
zone
Insurgents disguised as civilians
Insurgents armed mainly with ad hoc
and portable weapons
Insurgents mainly do not use aircraft
Assassinations conducted by all
parties
Popular support critical to all parties
Europe A.D. 1848
SPIE 6738-22
© Johnny Heikell 2007
Battlefield helicopters
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Inherently unstable and difficult to fly
Low flight height, day and night
Low flight speed, zero at hovering
Weight constrained
Real estate constrained
Vibration and fuselage flexure
High noise level
Vulnerable rotors, risk of rotorinduced signal modulation
Strong IR signature
Visual signatures
SPIE 6738-22
© Johnny Heikell 2007
Photonics: Requirements & challenges
 Must understand the operational environment
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Enemy & population, culture, “hearts and minds”
Climate, topography, atmospheric conditions
Friend-foe-neutral signatures, including IR/UV background
 Must adhere to strict ROEs
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Ejection of MVT flares, need for low-hazard flares
Laser safety, UN Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons
Need for NLW laser
 Need uniform horizontal capability
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Enemy detection, identification location, and
suppressive fire
Threat detection, identification, location, and
CM execution
Must minimize obscured sectors
SPIE 6738-22
© Johnny Heikell 2007
Photonics: Requirements & challenges
Short engagement ranges and timelines
Threat
declaration
Detection
warning
CM
onset
SPEED
600
1.0
0.8
Boost
Ejection
Sustain
500
400
0.6
0.4
300
Ejection
spike
200
0.2
100
0
1
Motor
ignition
2
3
Boost to
sustain
transition
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4
5
TIME ELAPSED
(seconds)
(m/s)
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MISSILE SPEED
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Short (2-4 s): IR MANPADS, LBR antitank missiles
Very short (<1 s): Ballistic weapons, STARSTREAK
Super short (milliseconds): IEDs, anti-helicopter mines
(arbitrary units)
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MISSILE IRRADIANCE AT TARGET
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© Johnny Heikell 2007
Photonics: Requirements & challenges
 Standoff detection of CBRE threats
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Chemical: Some existing solutions (e.g. FTIR, which is sensitive to IR
background clutter), differential LIDAR promising
Biological: Very difficult (fungi spores, pollen, common bacteria)
Radiological (and Nuclear): More or less same as C
Explosives: Intensive research but so far no solution that reaches 100
m standoff range (present hopes on RPAS and NLWM)
Summary: A long way to go before we have a complete solution that
can be put on helicopters
SPIE 6738-22
© Johnny Heikell 2007
Photonics: Requirements & challenges
 High spatial resolution, ISR compatibility
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Accurate and positive identification and target elimination
(assassination)  Need for high spatial resolution
Cueing by other ISR assets  Compatibility & data fusion
Inaccuracy: The attempt to assassinate
Somali clan leader Aidid in A.D. 1993
Pinpoint accuracy: The assassination of
Caesar in 44 B.C.
SPIE 6738-22
© Johnny Heikell 2007
Photonics: Requirements & challenges
 Priorities for shared resources
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Which pop-up frames on MFD? Who gets access to multiplex buses?
Priorities must be determined in advance
Do not overload the pilot, he is a busy working!
 Alternatives to on-board acoustic sensors
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Helicopter too noisy for acoustic sensors, EO alternatives are needed
 An integrated photonics architecture?
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DIRCM: Not in use 99.9999% of combat flight time!
Multipurpose laser: DIRCM—obstacle warning—LRF—etc.?
Common apertures & receivers: IRST—MLD—LWR—etc.?
Practical limitations: No combined MLD—LWR; no combined
damaging—jamming DIRCM laser
The issue is mainly a mental exertion, though the idea of improved
integration is worth keeping in mind
SPIE 6738-22
© Johnny Heikell 2007
Conclusions
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Rather evolutionary than revolutionary challenges
Broader set of environmental requirements, from threats
and atmosphere to socio-cultural challenges
Decreasing engagement timelines, preemptive countermeasures are the only feasible solution in extreme cases
Heaviest challenge for the laser community, the laser is
“a deficient solution to demanding needs”
Sensors: High sensitivity/long ranges  high spatial
resolution/wide IFOV
Need cooperation between the scientific-technical and
operational communities
SPIE 6738-22
© Johnny Heikell 2007
SPIE 6738-22
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